Amenhotep III

was a pharaoh from the 18th Dynasty (1570-1293 BC) who was a prolific builder and a relatively benevolent ruler. His reign lasted almost 40 years and was both stable and prosperous. He took the throne of Egypt at the early age of 12. His great-grandfather was Thutmosis III. His parents were Thutmosis IV and Queen Mutemwiya. He had many wives, one chief wife was Tiy, daughter of Yuya and Tuya (whose mummies are among the best preserved in Egypt). Amenhotep had two sons, The older died leaving Amenhotep IV to succeed to the throne. Amenhotep IV, after succeeding to the throne would later change his name to Akhenaten!

Amenhotep III’s reign was one of relative peace and the prosperity during his time was due to more to international trade and a strong gold supply, not from conquest and expansionism. He did lead campaigns, but mainly earlier on in his reign. Amenhotep built many splendid temples and statuary, including many large lifelike statues of himself.

The Temple of Amun at Luxor - Copyright (c) Copyright 1998 Andrew Bayuk, All Rights Reserved One of Amenhotep III’s greatest building achievements was the Temple of Amun, now in modern day Luxor. One of the famous reliefs on the east side of this temple consists of a royal birth scene, which served to establish the legitimacy of his rule by Continue reading Amenhotep III

Sneferu

Horus Name Horus Neb-Maat, “Horus, Lord of the Cosmological Order”
Nebty Name Neb-maat-nebty “The Two Ladies, the Lord of the Cosmological Order
Golden Horus Name Bik-nub “The Golden Falcon”
Praenomen Sneferu, Snofru
Nomen Snefru, Snofru
Manetho Soris
King Lists Snofru
Alternate Names Snefru, Sneferu, Seneferu, Snefrou, Snofrou, Snofru

Dates what's this?

manetho reigned 29 years Continue reading Sneferu

Babylonians

The 'Queen of the Night' Relief

The city of Babylon on the River Euphrates in southern Iraq first came to prominence as the royal city of king Hammurabi (about 1790-1750 BC). He established his control over many other kingdoms stretching from the Persian Gulf to Syria. The British Museum holds one of the iconic artworks of this period, the so-called “Queen of the Night”. Continue reading Babylonians

Queen Hatshepsut Pharaoh

During the Taliban rule in Afghanistan, large carved Buddhist sculptures on cliff walls were desecrated. Photos documenting the Buddhas before and after their destruction were featured in the exhibit Afghanistan: A Timeless History that I saw at the Museum of Fine Arts Houston in 2002. The exhibition was introduced with a statement and photo of first Lady Laura Bush presenting how the US Invasion and Presence in Afghanistan has allowed the saving and protection of many more of this culture’s works. Leap ahead to spring 2003 when the Iraq National Museum was left unguarded by US Troops after the invasion of Iraq, holding one-of-a-kind relics from the origins of civilization completely destroyed or taken by looters. Think of continuous character desecration in the United States with McCarthyism; Democratic and Republican ad campaigns; and the destruction of an individual’s or social group’s public image for the purpose of control and regaining power. Those in power have the option to rewrite history as they see fit. Howard Zinn references this within The People’s History of the United States and the exhibition Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh, shows some examples of this centuries before Christ. Continue reading Queen Hatshepsut Pharaoh

Amenhotep IV

Amenhotep IV (throne name Nefer-kheperue-re) becomes Akhenaten, the famous “heretic” pharaoh.

Akhenaten (1352-1336 BC) was son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy. During his reign both the art and religion in Egypt were marked by rapid change. When he initially succeeded the throne he was known as Amenhotep IV, but changed his name to Akhenaten in his fifth regnal year, and began to build a new capital called Akhetaten (“horizon of the sun”), in Middle Egypt. This phase, encompassing Akhenaten’s and Smenkhkara’s reign and the beginning of Tutankhamun’s, is now referred to as the Armarna Period, and the site of the city of Akhetaten is now known as el-Amarna.

Images of Akhenaten
Late-Amarna style sculpture of Akhenaten, probably from the workshop of Thutmose Akenaten and his family, shown adoring the Aten sun-disc. Bust of Akhenaten, Cairo Museum

Continue reading Amenhotep IV

Zoroastrians and Judaism

Fall of Assyria’s Empire and Rise of the Moses Legend

Assyria’s great empire lasted no longer than would the empires that began in the late nineteenth century — about seventy-five years. Assyria weakened itself economically by continuous wars to maintain its empire, including defending against invasions by an Indo-European tribal people, the Cimmerians, who came upon the Assyrians from the northeast. The Assyrians spent themselves expanding into Egypt and in quelling the rebellions of Egyptian princes. The Cimmerian menace increased, and more rebellions occurred within the empire. Assyria was burdened by the expense of maintaining its army. Soldiers had to be paid. Massive numbers of horses had to be cared for and fed. Siege engines had to be moved against rebellious cities. Continue reading Zoroastrians and Judaism