In order to spur the technological development in ethnic minorities’ regions, the Chinese government has adopted a series of preferential policies as follows: it gives priority to the cultivation and training of science and technology personnel from ethnic groups, admits minority students to public universities according to special enrollment plans, opens classes on campus exclusively for minority students and establishes popular majors in minorities universities or colleges to bring up more people with relevant expertise that are in short supply in society. Meanwhile, it has taken effective measures to train the existing technology personnel from minority groups, help introduce more talents and advanced equipment for minority people and their regions and upgrade traditional industries and products to enhance the business performance. Moreover, the Chinese government has established and improved the system for technology promotion in rural and pasture areas in order to boost the education and training of practical technology and help translate scientific achievements into real productivity in these regions. In addition, it has adopted some preferential policies concerning work condition and living standard to encourage more science and technology experts to make achievements in ethnic minorities’ regions. Last but not least, the government has urged the developed regions in other parts of China to take measures to expand their technology assistance to minority regions. These measures include: inviting experts to take a part-time job in minority regions, encouraging technology personnel to give lectures or work for a short-term period in these regions, help train their counterparts from ethnic groups and carry out technology cooperation with them. At present, a number of research institutes which are related to the national economy development, the need of people’s life and the actual condition of ethnic groups have been established in regions where ethnic minorities live and the scientific research system with various disciplines and research team with corresponding research orientations have also been shaped.
Statistics shows that the number of scientists and engineers from ethnic minority regions has reached nearly 100 thousand and these technology experts are playing an increasingly important role in the scientific and technological advancement of our country. Some of them are academicians of Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, some leaders of scientific projects, and some outstanding contributors for translating scientific achievements into real products. For instance, academician Wang Shiwen of Chinese Academy of Science, who comes from Hui nationality, devotes herself to the clinic and scientific research and teaching of cardiopathy and first aid study for the elderly and makes remarkable contribution to the development of medical study of elderly people in China as an emerging discipline. Academician Wei Yu of Chinese Academy of Engineering, who comes from Zhuang nationality, holds the doctorate of the Technological University of Aachen in Germany and is one of the trial-blazers of electro-biology and bio-computation as brand-new arenas in the world. Senior researcher of agricultural science Zheng Huiyu, who comes from Korean nationality, dedicates herself into the study of breeding and variety resources of soybean and one of her masterpieces is the Jilin No.20 Soybean with small granule.
In order to inherit and develop the culture of ethnic minorities, the governments of all national autonomous regions and prefectures have established the associations of writers, operas, music, dancing, fine arts, movies and photography according to the actual situation in their regions. Universities and minority colleges in some of these regions have opened the major of ethnic minorities’ literature and some local governments have set up art schools of various types, including conservatory, drama school and movie school, in order to cultivate minority people with literary and artistic expertise as many as possible. Taking minority medicine for example, Tibetan, Mongolia and Uygur medical colleges as well as intermediate schools devoted to minorities’ medical study have been established in Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. Continue reading Culture of Ethnic Minorities in China
Han people enjoy the largest population among China’s 56 nationalities and this population size also ranks first in the world. At present, the number of Han people has reached about 1.2 billion. Originally known as “Cathay”, Han people used to live in the central part of China; later, it assimilated and integrated with other nationalities and eventually boasts a 5 thousand years’ history of civilization. Since the beginning of Han Dynasty, the name “Han” was adopted to call this nationality. Han nationality has its own spoken and written language, which belong to Chinese-Tibetan language family. Its language falls into 8 categories of dialect, namely, dialect of northern China, dialect of south of the lower reaches of Yangtze River, Hunan dialect, Jiangxi dialect, Hakka dialect, dialect of southern Fujian, dialect of northern Fujian and Cantonese and the common language of these 8 dialects is Mandarin. Chinese letter is one of the most ancient letters in the world; it evolved from inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells of the Shang Dynasty and Nuchen letters and eventually became present-day Chinese characters. There are altogether over 80 thousand Chinese characters, among which about 7000 are commonly used. At present, Chinese has become one of the international languages. The staple food of Han people is grain crop and meat and vegetables are the non-staple foodstuffs. Over the long period of development, Han people have developed the habit of having three meals for each day and rice and flour serve as two major components of their staple food. In addition, other coarse crops, such as corn, sorghum, cereal and potato, are also part of the staple food in different regions of China. Due to various factors, there are varied types of cuisine in the food culture of Han people and when it comes to the Han and other nationalities’ preference of taste of food, people living in different parts of China are often termed as follows: the southern citizens are lovers of sweet food, the northern of salty food, the eastern of hot food and the western of sour food. At present, there are 8 typical cuisines with unique flavors in different parts of China, including Hunan cuisine, Sichuan cuisine, cuisine of northeastern China and Cantonese food. Wine and tea are two major beverages for Han people. Being the place of origin of tea and one of the first developers of brewing technology, China boasts long history of wine and tea culture. Except for wine and tea, some products made of fruits also serve as beverages for people in varied regions and seasons. There are myriads of festivals for Han people and China’s Lunar New Year is the most traditional one. Besides, the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month of lunar calendar, the Tomb-sweeping day on Apr.5th, the Dragon Boat Festival on the 5th day of the fifth lunar month and the Middle Autumn Day on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month are also important festivals. Continue reading Nationalities Whose Population Is above 5 Million
There are 20 ethnic minorities in China whose population is below 100 thousand, namely, Blang, Tajik, Achang, Pumi, Owenki, Nu, Ching, Jinuo, Deang, Paoan, Russian, Yuku, Uzbek, Monba, Oroqen, Dulong, Tartar, Hezhe, Gaoshan and Luoba.
Dulong nationality has a population of over 7400 people, who live in compact community in the river valley along the Dulong River in Gongshan Dulong and Nu Autonomous County of Yunnan Province. Its spoken language is Dulongnese, which belongs to the Chinese-Tibetan language family, but it has no letter of its own. Dulong people believe that everything has its soul and they worship nature objects. The name of this nationality first appeared as “Qiao” according to the folkways in Lijiang area recorded in the chorography of Yuan Dynasty; later in the Ming and Qing Dynasty, this minority group was called “Qiu” or “Qu”. After the founding of new China, the name “Dulong” was adopted at the will of this ethnic group. In the past, the level of social productive force development of Dulong nationality was very low because they were mainly engaged in primitive agricultural production with simple production tools made of wood and bamboo; in addition, collection of ready-made products, fishing and hunting are indispensable supplement to their production. It was not until the founding of People’s Republic of China in 1949 that the backward situation of Dulong people was completely addressed. Dulong people are industrious, hospitable and attach great importance to friendship. In Dulong community, it is not unusual that all the villagers render their help to the family that is in need or difficulty and the game animals are always shared by all who participate in the hunting. In addition, Dulong people are famed for their trustworthiness, fulfillment to their commitment and good traditional ethics and virtues based upon honesty and simplicity, therefore, in their community there are no such things as to shut the households’ doors at night to prevent burglary or to take possession of things lost by others on the road.
Continue reading Ethnic Minorities Whose Population Is below 100 Thousand
China is a united and multi-national country. The Chinese government adopts the policy of equality, unity and mutual assistance among different nationalities and respects and protects the religious freedom and customs of ethnic minorities.
Regional national autonomy is an important political system in China. It means under the leadership of Chinese central government, regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities and organs of self-government are established in these areas to exercise the power of autonomy. The central government ensures areas where regional national autonomy is practiced implement laws and policies of China according to their actual situations; it also encourages and supports the cultivation of a number of cadres of all levels, professionals of various fields and skilled workers among minority nationalities. People of various nationalities in areas where regional autonomy is practiced, together with all the others in China, are concentrating on the socialist modernization drive under the leadership of the Communist Party of China in order to accelerate the economic and cultural development of these areas and make their self-governed hometowns more stable and prosperous.
Continue reading Chinese Government’s Policy toward Ethnic Minorities
Having witnessed more than 2,000 years of slave society, the history of China welcomed the birth of the first consolidated, centralized, feudal empire. This dynasty was the Qin (in 221 B.C), whose significance would be recognized in the later ages.
In the States and Warring period (from 475 BC to 222 B.C), namely the end of the slave society, many small states battled with each other. Seven strong states survived, which were called the “Seven Powers”, namely, Qin, Qi, Chu, Wei, Yan, Han, and Zhao. Qin, situated in the northwestern region, carried out earlier reformations of agriculture and military affairs and flourished quickly. In the year of 247 B.C, Yinzheng was enthroned, who at the time was only 13 years old. Later, at the age of 22, Yinzheng was in control. He began to make efforts to swallow up the other six powers and consolidate China. He recruited talents, such as Zhengguo who was the spy from Zheng, whom Zhengguo Dyke was named after. This helped to turn the 40 thousand hectares of saline-alkali soil into fertile farmland. This would supply enough to influence consolidation. In less than 10 years, Yin annihilated the remaining six powers and succeeded to make out a new vast empire. As a result, the Qin Empire was established and Yin has been called the “The first Emperor”. Continue reading Qin Dynasty