China’s economy has witnessed a rapid development, so has that in regions where ethnic minorities live.
Stockbreeding serves as one of the major industries in minorities’ economy and since the endorsement of individual responsibility system for meadows and livestock in 1980s, livestock are sold to individuals and right to the use of meadow endowed to households; meanwhile, measures have been strengthened to boost the development of meadow and improve its protection and management. At present, rapid development has been achieved in China’s major pasture regions, including Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. Statistics shows that at present the total number of livestock in China’s pasture regions and semi-pasture and semi-farming regions has reached over 100 million each year. The rate of mature livestock has raised and the survival rate and the commercialization rate of livestock have also witnessed a significant increase. In addition, there are family-run ranches in some of China’s pasture regions and their production capacity and business performance have been greatly enhanced due to large-scale business management and adoption of advanced techniques in their production. Continue reading Economy of Ethnic Minorities in China
Education serves as the cornerstone of science and technology advancement and Chinese government has adopted a series of preferential policies and treatments to develop education of ethnic minorities as follows: it highlights and helps the ethnic groups to develop their own education and establishes special institutions for democratic education management; Meanwhile, it entitles and respects ethnic minorities and places where national autonomy are practiced to develop education in their own way, attaches great importance to the education of minorities’ corresponding languages and bilingual education and redoubles its efforts to develop textbooks written in their languages; besides, it strengthens measures to develop minorities’ own teaching staffs and provides special financial treatment to ethnic minorities and places where they live; furthermore, it establishes various types of school in accordance with the actual situation of ethnic minorities and their residential areas and it adopts special enrollment policy in designated regions where ethnic groups live in compact community in order to cultivate more people with corresponding expertise for these regions; last but not least, it provides favorable treatment in enrollment and campus life for ethnic students and encourages developed regions in other part of China to establish regular tie of assistance with corresponding areas where ethnic minorities live. Continue reading Education of Ethnic Minorities in China
In order to spur the technological development in ethnic minorities’ regions, the Chinese government has adopted a series of preferential policies as follows: it gives priority to the cultivation and training of science and technology personnel from ethnic groups, admits minority students to public universities according to special enrollment plans, opens classes on campus exclusively for minority students and establishes popular majors in minorities universities or colleges to bring up more people with relevant expertise that are in short supply in society. Meanwhile, it has taken effective measures to train the existing technology personnel from minority groups, help introduce more talents and advanced equipment for minority people and their regions and upgrade traditional industries and products to enhance the business performance. Moreover, the Chinese government has established and improved the system for technology promotion in rural and pasture areas in order to boost the education and training of practical technology and help translate scientific achievements into real productivity in these regions. In addition, it has adopted some preferential policies concerning work condition and living standard to encourage more science and technology experts to make achievements in ethnic minorities’ regions. Last but not least, the government has urged the developed regions in other parts of China to take measures to expand their technology assistance to minority regions. These measures include: inviting experts to take a part-time job in minority regions, encouraging technology personnel to give lectures or work for a short-term period in these regions, help train their counterparts from ethnic groups and carry out technology cooperation with them. At present, a number of research institutes which are related to the national economy development, the need of people’s life and the actual condition of ethnic groups have been established in regions where ethnic minorities live and the scientific research system with various disciplines and research team with corresponding research orientations have also been shaped.
Statistics shows that the number of scientists and engineers from ethnic minority regions has reached nearly 100 thousand and these technology experts are playing an increasingly important role in the scientific and technological advancement of our country. Some of them are academicians of Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, some leaders of scientific projects, and some outstanding contributors for translating scientific achievements into real products. For instance, academician Wang Shiwen of Chinese Academy of Science, who comes from Hui nationality, devotes herself to the clinic and scientific research and teaching of cardiopathy and first aid study for the elderly and makes remarkable contribution to the development of medical study of elderly people in China as an emerging discipline. Academician Wei Yu of Chinese Academy of Engineering, who comes from Zhuang nationality, holds the doctorate of the Technological University of Aachen in Germany and is one of the trial-blazers of electro-biology and bio-computation as brand-new arenas in the world. Senior researcher of agricultural science Zheng Huiyu, who comes from Korean nationality, dedicates herself into the study of breeding and variety resources of soybean and one of her masterpieces is the Jilin No.20 Soybean with small granule.
In order to inherit and develop the culture of ethnic minorities, the governments of all national autonomous regions and prefectures have established the associations of writers, operas, music, dancing, fine arts, movies and photography according to the actual situation in their regions. Universities and minority colleges in some of these regions have opened the major of ethnic minorities’ literature and some local governments have set up art schools of various types, including conservatory, drama school and movie school, in order to cultivate minority people with literary and artistic expertise as many as possible. Taking minority medicine for example, Tibetan, Mongolia and Uygur medical colleges as well as intermediate schools devoted to minorities’ medical study have been established in Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. Continue reading Culture of Ethnic Minorities in China
There are 20 ethnic minorities in China whose population is below 100 thousand, namely, Blang, Tajik, Achang, Pumi, Owenki, Nu, Ching, Jinuo, Deang, Paoan, Russian, Yuku, Uzbek, Monba, Oroqen, Dulong, Tartar, Hezhe, Gaoshan and Luoba.
Dulong nationality has a population of over 7400 people, who live in compact community in the river valley along the Dulong River in Gongshan Dulong and Nu Autonomous County of Yunnan Province. Its spoken language is Dulongnese, which belongs to the Chinese-Tibetan language family, but it has no letter of its own. Dulong people believe that everything has its soul and they worship nature objects. The name of this nationality first appeared as “Qiao” according to the folkways in Lijiang area recorded in the chorography of Yuan Dynasty; later in the Ming and Qing Dynasty, this minority group was called “Qiu” or “Qu”. After the founding of new China, the name “Dulong” was adopted at the will of this ethnic group. In the past, the level of social productive force development of Dulong nationality was very low because they were mainly engaged in primitive agricultural production with simple production tools made of wood and bamboo; in addition, collection of ready-made products, fishing and hunting are indispensable supplement to their production. It was not until the founding of People’s Republic of China in 1949 that the backward situation of Dulong people was completely addressed. Dulong people are industrious, hospitable and attach great importance to friendship. In Dulong community, it is not unusual that all the villagers render their help to the family that is in need or difficulty and the game animals are always shared by all who participate in the hunting. In addition, Dulong people are famed for their trustworthiness, fulfillment to their commitment and good traditional ethics and virtues based upon honesty and simplicity, therefore, in their community there are no such things as to shut the households’ doors at night to prevent burglary or to take possession of things lost by others on the road.
Continue reading Ethnic Minorities Whose Population Is below 100 Thousand
China is a united and multi-national country. The Chinese government adopts the policy of equality, unity and mutual assistance among different nationalities and respects and protects the religious freedom and customs of ethnic minorities.
Regional national autonomy is an important political system in China. It means under the leadership of Chinese central government, regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities and organs of self-government are established in these areas to exercise the power of autonomy. The central government ensures areas where regional national autonomy is practiced implement laws and policies of China according to their actual situations; it also encourages and supports the cultivation of a number of cadres of all levels, professionals of various fields and skilled workers among minority nationalities. People of various nationalities in areas where regional autonomy is practiced, together with all the others in China, are concentrating on the socialist modernization drive under the leadership of the Communist Party of China in order to accelerate the economic and cultural development of these areas and make their self-governed hometowns more stable and prosperous.
Continue reading Chinese Government’s Policy toward Ethnic Minorities