Race To Preserve The World’s Oldest Submerged Town: Pavlopetri, Greece

From :

ScienceDaily: Ancient Civilization News

The oldest submerged town in the world is about to give up its secrets — with the help of equipment that could revolutionize underwater archaeology. The ancient town of Pavlopetri lies in three to four meters of water just off the coast of southern Laconia in Greece. The ruins date from at least 2800 BC through to intact buildings, courtyards, streets, chamber tombs and some thirty-seven cist graves which are thought to belong to the Mycenaean period (c.1680-1180 BC). This Bronze Age phase of Greece provides the historical setting for much Ancient Greek literature and myth, including Homer’s Age of Heroes. – Please Ream More..

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Morals and Sexual Morality

“In the Life in Ancient Egypt”


Modesty, as distinct from fidelity, was not prominent among the Egyptians; they spoke of sexual affairs with a directness alien to our late sexual morality.

Harem in Ancient Egypt

Life in Ancient Egypt, Morals and Sexual Morality

Ancient Egyptians adorned their very temples with pictures and bas-reliefs of startling anatomical candor, and supplied their dead with obscene literature to amuse them in the grave.

Blood ran warm along the Nile: girls were nubile at ten, and premarital morals were free and easy; one courtesan, in Ptolemaic days, was reputed to have built a pyramid with her savings; even sodomy had its clientele.

Dancing-girls, in the manner of Japan, were accepted into the best male society as providers of entertainment and physical edification.

They dressed in diaphanous robes, or contented themselves with anklets, bracelets and rings.

Evidences occur of religious prostitution on a small scale.

As late as the Roman occupatcion the most beautiful girl among the noble families of Thebes was chosen to be consecrated to Amon.

When she was too old to satisfy the god she received an honorable discharge, married, and moved in the highest circles.

It was a civilization with different prejudices from our own.

Culture of Ethnic Minorities in China

In order to inherit and develop the culture of ethnic minorities, the governments of all national autonomous regions and prefectures have established the associations of writers, operas, music, dancing, fine arts, movies and photography according to the actual situation in their regions. Universities and minority colleges in some of these regions have opened the major of ethnic minorities’ literature and some local governments have set up art schools of various types, including conservatory, drama school and movie school, in order to cultivate minority people with literary and artistic expertise as many as possible. Taking minority medicine for example, Tibetan, Mongolia and Uygur medical colleges as well as intermediate schools devoted to minorities’ medical study have been established in Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. Continue reading Culture of Ethnic Minorities in China

Han Dynasty

Liu Bang, established the Han Empire and settled down in the capital Chang’an.

During the 7-year dominion of Hangaozu, the central regime was further reinforced and the policy “Recuperate and Multiply” was adopted. After Hui’s succession, the empress of Hangaozu gained power. who was one of the rare women rulers in the history of China. Wen succeeded to the throne in 183 BC. Wen, followed by his son, Jing, stuck to the policy of “Recuperate and Multiply”, decreased taxation and promoted the economy of the empire. (The Enlightenment of Wen/Jing) Continue reading Han Dynasty

Wei Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties

The Wei and Jin period lasted from 220 to 589 A.D. By the end of 2th century, Eastern Han power was declining, resulting in a long split of states. For example, Wei, Shu and Wu were three major kingdoms then. The Three Kingdoms Period was ended by the Western Jin, though it survived for mere 52 years from 265 to 316 A.D. China again entered a time of chaos after Western Jin’s short reunification. Eastern Jin (317-420 A.D.) was then established by the remaining baronages south of the Yangtze River. In the chaotic north, sixteen kingdoms came into being and strived for power. Continue reading Wei Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties

Sui and Tang Dynasty

In 581 A.D, China was reunified by the short-lived Sui dynasty, which lasted 37 years until 618 A.D., when Yang Guang, the successor of Emperor Sui Wen Di, was hanged. Sui dynasty’s early demise was attributed to the government’s tyrannical demands on the people, who bore the crushing burden of taxes and compulsory labor. These resources were overstrained in the completion of the Grand Canal (a monumental engineering feat) and in the undertaking of other construction projects, including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. Yang Jian, the founder of the dynasty, made some contributions to abolish cruel penalties and establish new ways to select court officials. Continue reading Sui and Tang Dynasty