Persian philosophs and sciences

It’s sure that they were Muslim but no Arab.

770-840 A.D. Mohanmmad Khwarizmi
864-930 A.D. Mohammad ibn Zakariya AL-RAZI
870-950 A.D. Farabi
900-971 A.D. born in Khorasan Mohammad ibn al-Hasan Khazin
940-997 A.D. born in Nishapur Abul Wafa Mohammad AL-BUZJANI
940-1020 A.D. born in Tus Ferdosi Faren til den modern Persisk
953-1029 A.D. born in Afschana Al-Karaji IBN SINA
1048-1131 A.D. born in Nishapur Omar Khayyam
1058-1128 A.D. born in Khorasan
1099- 1177 A.D
Hamid Ghazali
A.Saiid-e-A.Kheyr
1201-1274 A.D. born in Tus Nasir al-Din Tusi
1207 A.D. born in Balkh, Persia Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi
1194 A.D. born in Shiraz Sa’di
1320-1389 A.D. born in Shiraz Shams-od-Din Mohammad Hafez
1380-1429 A.D. in Kashan, Iran Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Mas’ud al-Kashi
Abu Bekr ibn Mohammad ibn al-Husayn

Iranians have always been interested in philosophic matters.
In the pre-Islamic period, philosophy was closely linked to theology, as indeed it also was in the early Islamic period.

Gradually, however, phi!osophy developed into a separate science, and most of the great Muslim philosophers were Iranians, although since they wrote mainly in Arabic, the universal language of Islam, they are often known in the West as Arab philosophers.
Iran adopted the Indian decimal system and numerals, transmitting them to the West as the “Arabic” numerals used today. Omar Khayyam wrote the most important medieval treatise on algebra, and systematized a very accurate calendar, which is the basis of the official Iranian calendar today.
Alchemy, the forerunner of chemistry, was widely studied, and Iranian alchemists discovered many important substances, including alcohol, and developed some of the apparatus used by modern chemists.
The philosophic tradition was kept alive by Sadr-od-Din Shirazi, who in Safavid times synthesized the various threads of Islamic philosophy into a comprehensive new system, and Sabzevan, a nineteenth-century philosopher who continued and revived the tradition.
Although scientific activity declined after the fifteenth century, the present century has seen a revival. Iranian scientists, at home and abroad, they are again making valuable contributions to mankind’s store of knowledge.

Muhammad Khwarizmi (770-840 A.D. born at Khwarizm, a town south of river Oxus in present Uzbekistan.)
(Uzbekistan, a city in Persia which was taken over by the Russians in 1873.)
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was an Iranian mathematician, founder of Algebra.
He is best known for introducing the mathematical concept Algorithm, which is so named after his last name.

Abu Bakr Muhammed ibn Zakariya al-Razi auch Ar-Razi, Rhazes (865-925 A.D.)
He born in in Raj, bei Teheran (Iran)
Razi was an Iranian alchemist and a philosopher

Farabi (870-950 A.D. born in a small village Wasij, near Farab in Turkistan)
Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi along with Ibn Sina added much to what the Greeks taught in the theory of Music
His parents were originally of Persian descent. Known as al-Phrarabius in Europe, Farabi was the son of a general. He completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, later on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time viz., from 901 A.D. to 942 A.D. During this period he acquired mastery over several languages as well as various branches of knowledge and technology. He lived through the reign of six Abbasid Caliphs. As a philosopher and scientist, he acquired great proficiency in various branches of learning and is reported to have been an expert in different languages.
Farabi travelled to many distant lands and studied for some time in Damascus and Egypt, but repeatedly came back to Baghdad, until he visited Saif al-Daula’s court in Halab (Allepo). He became one of the constant companions of the King, and it was here at Halab that his fame spread far and wide. During his early years he was aQadi (Judge), but later on the took up teaching as his profession. During the course of his career, he had suffered great hardships and at one time was the caretaker of a garden. He died a bachelor in Damascus in 339 A.H./950 A.D. at the age of 80 years.

Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Khazin (900-971 A.D. born in Khorasan)
Abu Jafar al-Khazin may have worked on both astronomy and number theory or there may have been two mathematicians both working around the same period, one working on astronomy and one on number theory.
As far as this article is concerned we will assume that al-Khazin worked on both topics. There seems no way of being certian which position is correct.

Abul Wafa Muhammad AL-BUZJANI (940-997 A.D. born in Nishapur, Persia)
He flourished as a great mathematician and astronomer.
Abul Wafa’s main contribution lies in several branches of mathematics, especially geometry and trigonometry.
Ferdosi Faren til den modern Persisk ( 940-1020 A.D. born in Toos ) 329-416 A.H..>
Ferdosi was one of the greatest poets of Persian language. He gave a new life to Irans poetry.
His work is ShahNameh.
ShahNameh includes historical, heroic and fictional stories. Some of his other works like lyric,
fragment, quatrain and elegy are available.

IBN SINA (980-1037 A.D.)
He born in Afschana (bei Buchara; Usbekistan) and died in 1037 in Hamadan (Persien)
He was the most famous physician, philosopher, encyclopaedist, mathematician and astronomer of his time.
His major contribution to medical science was his famous book al-Qanun, known as the “Canon” in the West.
The Qanun fi al-Tibb is an immense encyclo- paedia of medicine extending over a million words

Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi (born in 1207 Balkh, Persia)
The name Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi stands for Love and ecstatic flight into the infinite.
Mevlana is one of the great spiritual masters and poetical geniuses of mankind and was the founder of the Mevlevi Sufi order.
Escaping the Mongol invasion, Rumi and his family travelled extensively in the Muslim lands, performed the pilgrimage to Mecca and finally settled in Konya, Anatolia (Turkey), where he succeeded his father in 1231 as professor in religious sciences.
He was introduced into the mystical path by a wandering dervish, Shamsuddin of Tabriz. His love and his bereavement for the death of Shams found their expression in a surge of music, dance and lyric poems, `Divani Samsi Tabrizzi’. Rumi is the author of a huge didactic work, The `Mathnawi’, and discourses, `Fihi ma Fihi’, written to introduce his disciples to metaphysics. If there is `Fihi ma Fihi’, written to introduce his disciples to metaphysics. If there is any general idea underlying Rumi’s poetry, it is the absolute love of God. His influence on thought, literature and all forms of aesthetic expression in the world of Islam cannot be overrated.

Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 A.D. in Nishapur, Persia)
Omar Khayyam’s full name was Ghiyath al-Din Abu’l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami.
Khayyam was an outstanding mathematician and astronomer and, despite the difficulties which he described in this quote, he did write several works includingProblems of Arithmetic, a book on music and one on algebra before he was 25 years old.
In 1070 he moved to Samarkand in Uzbekistan which is one of the oldest cities of Central Asia. There Khayyam was supported by Abu Tahir, a prominent jurist of Samarkand, and this allowed him to write his most famous algebra work,Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra from which we gave the quote above. We shall describe the mathematical contents of this work later in this biography.

Norooz in History of Iran
The first person who re-organized the calendar successfully was Omar Khayyam, the mathematician and astronomer of 5th century HG (11-12th A.D.). He drew a chart for the year and put the start of the year at the moment of Aries entrance to the house of Sun. He made a calendar of 6 months with 31 days, and 6 months with 30 days making a year of 365 days, and suggested the addition of 1 day every four years and also addition of a months every 13,000 years. This is the most complete calendar ever made. Khayyam called it ‘the Jalali Calendar’ because of ‘Jalal’ al-Din Malekshah Saljuqi, his patron king.
This calendar called the ‘Khorshidi’(Sun based) calendar, as oppose to the Arabic ‘Ghamari’ (moon based) calendar.

Although Khayyam was Iranian and he created this calendar based on the pre-Islamic calendar of Zoroastrians, it was not used widely in Iran until the 1925 AD(1304 HS) when Reza Shah Pahlavi ordered it to be used instead of ‘Ghamari’ calendar. In the process of finding names for the months, there are some interesting mistakes happened which are note-worthy.
Norooz, in word, means a new day. It is a new day that starts the year, traditionally in the exact astronomical beginning of the Spring, but it was not always like this!

Abu-Saiid-e-Abul-Kheyr (fl. 11th century) was an Iranian Gnostic.
He was born in Meehneh-a village in the old Khorasan. His father was a pharmacist who was a firm believer in the tenets of sufi mysticism. Abu-Saiid came to know sufi mysticism through the gatherings of sophists to which his father frequented. He was taught theology and literature in his hometown, as well as in the towns of Marve and Sarakhs. He then began practicing asceticism-the cleansing of the soul through self-denial, under the guidance of some great masters and teachers. This metamorphosed him into a complete Gnostic. Thereafter, aside from a short period of preaching in Neyshaboor,he spentmost of his life in his hometown of Meehneh.

Hamid Ghazali (1058- 1128 A.D. born in Khorasan, Iran)
Abu Hamid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi’i al-Ghazali an Iranian Philosopher.
His father died while he was still very young but he had the opportunity of getting education in the prevalent curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad. Soon he acquired a high standard of scholarship in religion and philosophy and was honoured by his appointment as a Professor at the Nizamiyah University of Baghdad, which was recognised as one of the most reputed institutions of learning in the golden era of Muslim history.

Abu-Rayhaan-e-Birooni (1099-1177 A.D)
Birooni was an Iranian mathematician, astronomer, historian, and geographer

Shaikh Sadi Shirazi (1194 born in Shiraz)
originally named Muslih-uddin..He remained there for about 30 years, establishing his fame as a great Persian poet and popular writer. He took the name Sadi in honor of his patron Sad b. Zengi. Between 1226 and 1256 he traveled widely, visiting Europe, Ethiopia, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Turkey, Arabia, Iran, and beyond the Indus to Hindustan. In a prose work called The Gulistan (or The Rose Garden) he provided prose stories that touch on practical wisdom and moral questions in an easy and entertaining style.

Shams-od-Din Muhammad Hafez (1320-1397 A.D.)
A Classic Poet from Shiraz Hafez created the best literary and Gnostic concepts in the form of eloquent and pithy lyrics. His concepts surpassed those of other contemporary philosophers, thinkers and scholars.

Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Mas’ud al-Kashi (about 1380-1429 A.D.in Kashan, Iran)
Kashi was an Iranian mathematician and astronomer
Details of Jamshid al-Kashi’s life and works are better known than many others from this period although details of his life are sketchy.
One of the reasons we is that he dated many of his works with the exact date on which they were completed, another reason is that a number of letters which he wrote to his father have survived and give fascinating information.

Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Karaji (953 – 1029)
Karaji was an Iranian Mathematician
It appears both as al-Karaji and as al-Karkhi but this is not a simple matter of two different transliterations of the same Arabic name.
The significance is that Karaj is a city in Iran and if the mathematician’s name is al-Karaji then certainly his family were from that city. On the other hand Karkh is one of the original suburbs of Baghdad which grew up outside the southern gate of the original city. The name al-Karkhi would indicate that the mathematician came from the suburb of Baghdad.

Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-1274 A.D. was born in Tus, Khorasan and died in Baghdad)
He was an astronomer who worked at the Il-Khanid Observatory situated in Persia. In his astronomical studies, Al-Tusi was able to obtain an accurate value for the solar procession. In addition to his work on the solar procession, Al-Tusi attempted to come up with an alternative to Ptolemy’s system of epicycles.

Takht-e Suleiman- Ancient Iran


Sacred lake of Takht-e Suleiman
(Order Fine Art Print)

Located in a mountainous area of northwestern Iran and 42 kilometers north of the village of Takab, Takht-e Suleiman (the ‘Throne of Solomon’) is one of the most interesting and enigmatic sacred sites in Iran. Its setting and landforms must certainly have inspired the mythic imagination of the archaic mind. Situated in a small valley, at the center of a flat stone hill rising twenty meters above the surrounding lands, is a small lake of mysterious beauty. Brilliantly clear but dark as night due to its depth, the lake’s waters are fed by a hidden spring far below the surface. Places like this were known in legendary times as portals to the underworld, as abodes of the earth spirits.

Archaeological studies have shown that human settlements existed in the immediate region since at least the 1st millennium BC, with the earliest building remains upon the lake-mound from the Achaemenian culture (559-330 BC). During this period the fire temple of Adur Gushasp (Azargoshnasb) was first constructed and it became one of the greatest religious sanctuaries of Zoroastrianism, functioning through three dynasties (Achaemenian, Parthian, Sassanian) for nearly a thousand years. In the early Sassanian period of the 3rd century AD, the entire plateau was fortified with a massive wall and 38 towers. In later Sassanian times, particularly during the reigns of Khosrow-Anushirvan (531-579 AD) and Khosrow II (590-628), extensive temple facilities were erected on the northern side of the lake to accommodate the large numbers of pilgrims coming to the shrine from beyond the borders of Persia. Following the defeat of Khosrow II’s army by the Romans in 624 AD, the temple was destroyed and its importance as a pilgrimage destination rapidly declined. During the Mongol period (1220-1380), a series of small buildings were erected, mostly on the southern and western sides of the lake, and these seem to have been used for administrative and political rather than religious functions. The site was abandoned in the 17th century, for unknown reasons, and has been partially excavated by German and Iranian archaeologists in the past 100 years.


Ruins of Takht-e Suleiman


Ruins of Takht-e Suleiman

The Hurrians – History of Ancient Torkey


The Hurrians enter the orbit of ancient Middle Eastern civilization toward the end of the 3rd millennium BC. They arrived in Mesopotamia from the north or the east, but it is not known how long they had lived in the peripheral regions.

Ruins of the Hittite capitol of Hattusa

There is a brief inscription in Hurrian language from the end of the period of Akkad, while that of King Arishen (or Atalshen) of Urkish and Nawar is written in Akkadian. The language of the Hurrians must have belonged to a widespread group of ancient Middle Eastern languages. The relationship between Hurrian and Subarean has already been mentioned, and the language of the Urartians, who played an important role from the end of the 2nd millennium to the 8th century BC, is likewise closely related to Hurrian. According to the Soviet scholars Igor M. Diakonov and Sergei A. Starostin, the Eastern Caucasian languages are an offshoot of the Hurrian-Urartian group.

It is not known whether the migrations of the Hurrians ever took the form of aggressive invasion; 18th-century-BC texts from Mari speak of battles with the Hurrian tribe of Turukku south of Lake Urmia (some 150 miles from the Caspian Sea’s southwest corner), but these were mountain campaigns, not the warding off of an offensive. Proper names in cuneiform texts, their frequency increasing in the period of Ur III, constitute the chief evidence for the presence of Hurrians. Nevertheless, there is no clear indication that the Hurrians had already advanced west of the Tigris at that time. An entirely different picture results from the 18th-century palace archives of Mari and from texts originating near the upper Khabur River. Northern Mesopotamia, west of the Tigris, and Syria appear settled by a population that is mainly Amorite and Hurrian; and the latter had already reached the Mediterranean littoral, as shown by texts from Alalakh on the Orontes. In Mari, literary texts in Hurrian also have been found, indicating that Hurrian had by then become a fully developed written language as well.

Another depiction of Hittite warriors

The high point of the Hurrian period was not reached until about the middle of the 2nd millennium. In the 15th century, Alalakh was heavily Hurrianized; and in the empire of Mitanni the Hurrians represented the leading and perhaps the most numerous population group.

The Hurrians were one of a people important in the history and culture of the Middle East during the 2nd millennium BC. The earliest recorded presence of Hurrian personal and place names is in Mesopotamian records of the late 3rd millennium; these point to the area east of the Tigris River and the mountain region of Zagros as the Hurrian habitat. From then on, and especially during the early 2nd millennium, there is scattered evidence of a westward spread of Hurrians. An even greater westward migration, probably set in motion by the intrusion of Indo-Iranians from the north, seems to have taken place after 1700 BC, apparently issuing from the area between Lake Van and the Zagros. Evidence indicates that the Hurrians overthrew the Assyrian rulers and subsequently dominated the area. East of the Tigris the flourishing commercial centre of Nuzu was a basically Hurrian community, and Hurrian influence prevailed in many communities of Syria. Hurrians likewise occupied large sections of eastern Anatolia, thereby becoming eastern neighbours and, later, partial dependents of the Hittites.

Yet the Hurrian heartland during this period was northern Mesopotamia, the country then known as Hurri, where the political units were dominated by dynasts of Indo-Iranian origin. In the 15th century BC the Hurrian area ranging from the Iranian mountains to Syria was united into a state called Mitanni. In the middle of the 14th century, the resurgent Hittite Empire under Suppiluliumas I defeated Mitanni and reduced its king, Mattiwaza, to vassalage, while Assyria seized the opportunity to reassert its independence.

Below: The lion gate at Hattusa, the Hittite capitol

Despite political subjection, the continued Hurrian ethnic and cultural presence in Syria and the Cilician region (Kizzuwadna) strongly influenced the Hittites. The carvings at Yazlkaya, for instance, suggest that the official pantheon of the Hittite Empire was thoroughly Hurrianized; Hittite queens had Hurrian names; and Hurrian mythology appears in Hittite epic poems.Except for the principality of Hayasha in the Armenian mountains, the Hurrians appear to have lost all ethnic identity by the last part of the 2nd millennium BC.