Archaeology Achaemenid Dynasty

The Achaemenids were the ruling dynasty of Cyrus the Great and his family over the Persian empire, from 550-330 BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus’s empire included Libya, Ethiopia, Thrace, Macedonia, Afghanistan, and the Punjab and everything in between. Continue reading Archaeology Achaemenid Dynasty

Archaeology Akra (Pakistan)

Definition: Akra is a large important site of the Achaemenid dynasty, located in the Bannu Basin south of Peshawar in what is today Pakistan. The site consists of a series of impressive mounds between 15 and 20 meters in height, and has been recognized as an archaeological site for more than 100 years.

Occupations at Akra date between 2000 BC and AD 1200. Evidence in the form of seals indicates a connection with central Asia by the early second millennium BC. Iron Age occupations at Akra suggest it may have been the capital of the Thatagus region, mentioned in the Behistun Inscription as one of the territories acquired by the Achaemenid King Darius I in the 6th century BC.

Ancient Sumer Woman


Based on a terracotta relief from Sumer, circa 1950 B.C. Continue reading Ancient Sumer Woman

Hyksos, Hittite and Hurrian Conquests

In the mid-1700s a literate people with a Semitic language moved through Canaan, took control of some cities there, and then conquered northern Egypt. It is not known who they were, except that the Egyptians called them Hyksos (hyk khwsht), which identifies them only as foreigners. Like the Kassites, the Hyksos had horses, and they had lightweight chariots. They introduced Egyptians to the wheel and to new weapons of war. They introduced the Egyptians to new musical instruments, new techniques in making bronze and pottery, new animals, new kinds of crops, and new gods. Continue reading Hyksos, Hittite and Hurrian Conquests

The Sumerians Civilization

Hunter-gatherers had roamed that part of the Middle East called the Fertile Crescent, and they had planted gardens. By 7000 BCE the crops they planted became a major source of food. They had begun farming, which required permanent settlement. Continue reading The Sumerians Civilization

Ancient Sumerians

The people that settled in Mesopotamia about 3500 B. C. were a short, stocky, black-haired people called the Sumerians. The area that they settled in was called Sumer. Continue reading Ancient Sumerians