[1.1.1] The thought once occurred to us how many republics have been overthrown by people who preferred to live under any form of government other than a republican, and again, how many monarchies and how many oligarchies in times past have been abolished by the people. We reflected, moreover, how many of those individuals who have aspired to absolute power have either been deposed once for all and that right quickly; or if they have continued in power, no matter for how short a time, they are objects of wonder as having proved to be wise and happy men. Then, too, we had observed, we thought, that even in private homes some people who had rather more than the usual number of servants and some also who had only a very few were nevertheless, though nominally masters, quite unable to assert their authority over even those few.
[1.1.2] And in addition to this, we reflected that are the rulers of their horses, and that all who are called herdsmen might properly be regarded as the rulers of the animals over which they are placed in charge. Now we noticed, as we thought, that all these herds obeyed their keepers more readily than men obey their rulers. For the herds go wherever their keeper directs them and graze in those places to which he leads them and keep out of those from which he excludes them. They allow their keeper, moreover, to enjoy, just as he will, the profits that accrue from them. And then again, we have never known of a herd conspiring against its keeper, either to refuse obedience to him or to deny him the privilege of enjoying the profits that accrue. At the same time, herds are more intractable to strangers than to their rulers and those who derive profit from them. Men, however, conspire against none sooner than against those whom they see attempting to rule over them.
Continue reading The Life of Cyrus The Great
The Egyptians were famous for their wigs, usually made from human hair and braided and styled in countless different ways, from the simple to sheer elaborate. In much the same way as in 18th century Europe, hair was of great importance, and both male and female, rich and poor alike, treated their hair as a highly pliable form of self expression. Continue reading Wigs and Hair in Acient Egpyt
The hot and sunny climate of Ancient Egypt meant that simple lightweight linen clothes were the preferred choice of most Egyptians. Whilst a number of examples of New Kingdom textiles have survived, studies of Ancient Egyptian dress and textiles are still largely based upon the study of wall paintings, reliefs and sculptures.
The well documented kohl-rimmed eyes of the ancient Egyptians are one of their most distinctive features. Cosmetics were not considered a luxury, and most people, from the simple peasant upwards to pharaoh himself used them. The only real difference between the classes was the quality of the products used. Men and women followed the latest fashions in both hairstyles, make-up and fashion. Continue reading Dress and Fashion in Ancient Egypt
Chinese government attaches great importance to the cultivation of ethnic minority cadres. The number of ethnic minority cadres has greatly increased and many of them have been selected to hold a leading position in governments of county level or above. At present, the chairpersons of 5 autonomous regions, as well as the heads of 30 autonomous prefectures and 119 autonomous counties or banners in China, are all from ethnic groups.
Continue reading The Cultivation and Selection of Ethnic Minority Cadres
translated by Sri Aurobindo
Chapter One. Section I
1. OM. Dawn is the head of the horse sacrificial. The sun is his eye, his breath is the wind, his wide open mouth is Fire, the master might universal. Time is the self of the horse sacrificial. Heaven is his back and the midworld his belly, earth is his footing, – the regions are his flanks and the lesser regions their ribs, the seasons his members, the months and the half-months are their joints, the days and nights are of his body. The strands are the food in his belly, the rivers are his veins, his liver and lungs are the mountains, herbs and plants are his hairs, the rising is his front and the setting his hinder portion, when he stretches himself, then it lightens , when he shakes his frame, then it thunders, when he urinates, then it rains.mSpeech, verily, is the sound of him. Continue reading Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
translated by Sri Aurobindo Chapter One. I. Section
1. Hari OM. In the beginning the Spirit was One and all this( universe) was the Spirit; ; there was nought else that saw. The Spirit thought, “Lo, I will make me worlds from out my being”.
2.These were the worlds he made : ambhah, of the etheral waters, maricich, of light, mara of death and mortal things, apah, of the lower waters.
Beyond the shining firmament are the etheral waters and the firmament is their base and resting-place; Space is the world of light ; the earth is the world mortal ; and below the earth are the lower waters.
3.The Spirit thought , “Lo, these are the worlds, and now will I make me guardians for my worlds”
Therefore he gathered the Purusha out of the waters and gave Him shape and substance. Continue reading Aitareya Upanishad