WOMEN, RELIGION AND PIETY IN ANCIENT EGYPT

More, perhaps, than any other culture in the ancient world or since, the Egyptians were struck by the rhythms of the universe. Everyone is aware of the rising and setting sun, night and day, the moon’s monthly cycle, the seasons, birth and death, etc., but only the Egyptians made a religion of these recurrences. Possibly it was the Nile River that made them realize how dependent they were on continuity, for every year the river flooded its banks turned the entire country into a shallow lake, and four months later the water receded enough to plant. Any time the flood levels were low there would be famine and any time there was too much water villages would be destroyed.

As leader of the country, it was the King’s job to ensure the willingness of the gods to work for the maintenance of order and the continuation of these natural cycles for life itself depended on them. The Pharaoh was thought to be partially divine in order to facilitate his work with both humans and gods.

Akhenaten tried to convince his people that there was only one God, Aten, but the experiment in monotheism did not survive the death of the Pharaoh who introduced it. Otherwise the Egyptians were a remarkably tolerant people when it came to matters of religion. There were no atheists or agnostics, of course, but there is no evidence of the sort of “my view of god is better than your view of god” that is all too common in interdenominational and inter-religion relations today.

In theory the Pharaoh was the chief priest and appointed a High Priest in each of the temples to act in his absence. In reality every temple functioned as an independent unit and more often than not the High Priest got his job the same way other men got theirs: by being the son of the predecessor. Each god or goddess had his or her own cult center that operated without ties to any other organization. Even when two or more temples worshipped the same god or goddess, they usually operated as unrelated entities.

There was no catechism or official body of doctrine that all worshippers were expected to believe, nor were there congregations in the manner of churches today. Worship was carried out by the priests, not by ordinary people, and was designed to ensure the gods and goddesses looked with favor on Egypt. It was not designed to facilitate a relationship between the individual and his deity.

A statue of the god or goddess was kept in a cupboard in the sanctuary. Every day a priest would clean the statue, change its clothes, and offer food and drink. The statue, a man-made representation, was a home for the god or goddess in the same way that a mummy was a home for a person’s Ka and Ba: no one thought of the statue as the real thing any more than would a modern Christian offering prayers to a Crucifix or a statue of the Virgin Mary.

Occasionally the statue was taken out of the temple and paraded around for the masses to see. This would be a time of feasting and celebration. While some provided a place for ordinary people to present their petitions or to offer personal prayers, temples existed to propitiate the gods. Those seeking a more personal relationship with the divine worshipped household gods at home.

It is a truism that the Egyptians were a very conservative people. They had no real objection to new ideas, but they tended to layer the new on top rather than discard the old. Where we see contradiction, they saw further clarification. There are several creation myths: modern people would say that while they could not believe any of them, logic would decree that if one were true the others had to be false. The Ancient Egyptian would see no reason not to accept them all despite the differences.

ISIS:

Isis was undoubtedly the most popular goddess in Ancient Egypt. She is normally pictured as a woman with the hieroglyphic sign for a throne on her head. Her enormous popularity, however, led to a merging with other goddesses, so, for example, she can often be found wearing Hathor’s cow horns and solar disk. The Greeks equated her with both the moon goddess Astarte and the corn goddess Demeter.

Most Egyptian temples had a corner reserved for the worship of Isis, but it was not until Dynasty XXX (The Late Period) that Isis got her own temple in the Eastern Delta. Other temples followed soon after at Philae (just south of Aswan) and at Denderah.

She was often thought of as the protector goddess and was one of the deities that guarded the four corners of the king’s sarcophagus. It was as a loving and faithful wife and mother, however, that Isis was best known and revered.

As king of Egypt, the god Osiris taught his people to harvest crops and to worship the gods. His brother Seth was jealous enough of Osiris popularity but he was absolutely furious that Isis and not he was made regent while the king traveled to spread his ideas around the world. Seth killed his brother by locking him in a box and tossing it into the river. The box drifted downstream, into the Mediterranean Sea and ended up wedged in a giant tamarisk tree in the palace of the King of Byblos.

Isis was distraught at the death of her husband and set out to find his body. Using a combination of help from the humans she met along the way and her magical powers as a goddess she learned the whereabouts of the box and her husband’s body.

Having disguised herself as an old lady, she was invited into the palace, the queen thinking that an Egyptian might know some spells that would cure her ailing son. Isis was revealed as a goddess. As a reward for saving the prince, she was given the tamarisk in which, unknown to anyone else, her husband’s body had been lodged. Isis retrieved the body of Osiris and returned the tree to the King of Byblos who made it the centerpiece of a new temple.

Shortly after Isis returned to Egypt Seth found the body, cut it up, and scattered the pieces. With the help of her sister, Nephthys, Isis managed to find all of the pieces. The gods Anubis and Thoth helped them put the pieces back together, embalm the body and wrap it in linen cloth, thus making the first mummy. Isis changed herself into a bird and used her wings to fan life back into him. He was then made King of the Underworld.

Isis had an infant son at this point and the next few years were spent raising him. Life was not easy for a single mother, even a goddess, and they were often hungry and constantly in fear that Seth would find them. Eventually Horus reached manhood and was ready to claim his throne. The Tribunal of the Gods agreed to meet to decide the issue.

Re preferred the throne would go to the more experienced Seth and ordered that Isis a women, be excluded from the discussion. The wily Isis bribed the ferryman to take her to the island where she transformed herself into a beautiful young woman. Seth was besotted. Not realizing who she was, he determined to possess her, but she refused his advances unless he agreed to help her.

Her son, she said, was caring for his father’s cattle, when a stranger came and stole them. She needed his help to get them back. The Egyptian word for cattle was also used as a synonym for the Egyptian people. As soon as he promised to get back her son’s “cattle”, Isis revealed herself as a goddess and demanded he keep his promise to return the Egyptian people to Horus. The gods all agreed that Seth had been beaten and Horus became King of Egypt.

We can see from this story that gods and goddesses have considerable power but that were limits to what they could do. They had the same emotions and the same needs as humans. Some scholars have suggested that the conflict between Seth and Horus may have reflected an actual incident in early history where it was decided that the succession would pass to a king’s son and not to his brother.

Isis was assimilated with a number of goddesses and her worship spread to the farthest corners of the Roman Empire. It has been suggested that if Emperor Constantine had not given his support to Christianity early in the Fourth Century A.D. that the cult of Isis might still be a major religion in the world of today.

HATHOR:

Next to Isis, Hathor was the most popular goddess in Ancient Egypt. Her name, in Egyptian, meant “The Mansion of Horus”, so there is no doubt that she was considered one of the senior sky goddesses and sometimes called “Eye of the Sun God, Re”. She can be pictured in a variety of ways:

1. as a gigantic cow standing astride the four corners of the earth with the stars and planets attached to her hide and udder. The sun is fixed between the horns on her head. (The sky goddess Nut is also pictured this way, minus, of course, the udder and horns.)

2. a woman with a round, somewhat flattened face with a wig through which one can see the ears of a cow.

3. a very beautiful, young woman wearing an image of the sun caught in the grip of the horns of a cow.

When the aging Re became concerned that some humans were plotting against him he sent Hathor to catch and punish the guilty. Hathor took so much joy from her task and the taste of blood that he feared she would go on to kill all of humanity. The Sun God ordered that red ochre be mixed with enough beer to flood the land. Hathor thought it was blood and greedily drank it all. Needless to say she got so drunk that she forgot about her plan to kill all mankind.

Despite this one image of a bloodthirsty Hathor, she was normally thought of as a fun loving goddess concerned with the well being of humanity. She took a special interest in unmarried girls, for whom she would often find husbands, and as a fertility goddess she was called upon to help women in childbirth. When the Greeks came to match their deities with those of Egypt Hathor was thought to be the equivalent of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty.

The Seven Hathors, a group of goddesses resembling Hathor, were able to foretell the fate of a newborn in the same way as the Fates of Greece.

Many temples were built in her honor both in Egypt and outside. Most of Egypt’s large towns had at least a shrine dedicated to her and often showed the local goddess as a manifestation of Hathor. In honor of his wife Nefertari, Ramesses II built a temple for Hathor at Abu Simbel in Nubia. One of the best known and most important Hathor temples was the one at Denderah, some 60 km north of Luxor. We have already noted that temple worship was usually carried out by the priests rather than the people, but commoners had a chance to participate during the great festivals when the divine statue was taken on a trip outside the temple. At Denderah the special occasion was the annual celebration of the Sacred Marriage of Hathor and Horus. Two weeks before May’s new moon, Hathor’s statue sailed 70 km up-river to Edfu. The procession stopped at several places along the way to allow the goddess to visit local deities. She was met at Edfu by the statue of Horus and together the two deities were carried to various holy sites for the performance of the appropriate rituals. For the next two weeks temple staff supplied free food and drink to all pilgrims. It was, of course, the biggest party of the year.

MA’AT:

The Egyptian concept of ma’at refers to the natural order of the universe, ‘the way things ought to be’. It is sometimes called ‘justice’ but there is no word in the English language that really encompasses what the Egyptians meant and more often than not the word is simply left untranslated. Ma’at included the proper relationship between one human and another, between ruler and ruled, and between gods and people. Even the universe was subject to Ma’at as it was the force that kept the seasons in succession.

Ma’at did not mean that everyone should be equal. Some will have more money, social status, and authority than others, but responsibility goes with privilege. The rich should provide aid to the poor and those with power should use it to ensure there is justice for the weak.

On the day of judgment the heart was weighed against a feather to determine if the deceased had lived a life in accordance with Ma’at. There was no attempt to measure the amount of goodness or sin; a heart that weighed too much was as unacceptable as a heart that weighed too little. If the heart did not match the feather exactly, it was thrown to the Devourer, a creature with the head of a crocodile, the forequarters of a lion and the hindquarters of a hippopotamus: without a heart to serve as home, no life was possible for the Ka or the Ba.

The concept of Ma’at was so important that it was personified as a goddess. Portrayed as a woman wearing a feather in her headband, she was thought to be the daughter of the sun god, Re. She was often shown as a gift being presented by the king to the other gods.

WOMEN AND WORSHIP
Worship services in the temples were intended to promote a good relationship between the state and the gods. Personal piety was an individual and family matter, not a corporate one. Once a year most statues of a god or goddess were taken out of the temple and paraded around for the general public to see. This would be an excuse for a party as well as an opportunity for the masses to express their devotion to the local deity.

Level of ritual purity determined how far into a temple one could go, much like the levels of security clearance in a modern spy novel, but anyone could enter the outer courtyard. Here there was often a place where the faithful could present their petitions within earshot of the deity. Failing that, some public spirited individual may have constructed a statue where people could leave an offering with the expectation that someone would approach the divine on their behalf.

Those who could afford it set up a votive stela in the courtyard bearing a prayer and a picture of himself or herself making an offering to the god. A cheaper alternative was to use a shard of pottery. Either approach may perhaps have operated in much the same way as a candle left burning by the faithful in some Christian churches today. This stela, dedicated to the god Ptah, pictures a number of ears, symbolizing the donor’s hope that people can stand before it and have their prayers heard by Ptah.

Much of the personal religious activity seems to have taken place at home. Unfortunately much of the evidence for this has disappeared along with their mud brick houses, but it appears that home had altars or niches that held votive stelae. Worship involved food offerings, libations and flowers, and stressed problems associated with conception and birth.

This stela is from the Ptolemaic or Roman era of Egypt and was likely put in the courtyard of a private home to keep evil away. Women looked to the god Bes to promote pregnancy and to keep them safe during childbirth. He is pictured in the stela brandishing a sword and holding a serpent (the symbol of evil)

Ancient China Sex

During this time, female homosexuality was widespread, but male homosexuality was rare. Male homosexuality was
forbidden because it was considered a complete loss of yang essence on the part of both men. Meanwhile, since
women were said to have an unlimited yin essence, there was no loss of yin in female homosexual relations.
Not until the Han dynasty did male homosexuality figures reach the same standard as among other societies.

At first, prostitution was accepted by the Chinese. Men thought that they could gain more yin from prostitutes
than from normal women. They believed that since such women had sex with so many men, that they had acquired more
yang essence from them, thus, they could give a patron more yang essence than he had lost. However, Chinese
medicine began to identify prostitutes with many diseases at an early stage in human history and they began
warning men against them.

Ch’in Dynasty – 221 BC to 24 AD

The Ch’in Dynasty shifted the Taoist culture to a Confucianist culture, which was completely different.
Women were placed in an inferior position to men. All physical contact between men and women was confined
to marriage and their bedroom or a couch. After leaving the bedroom or couch, there was to be no physical
contact between husbands and wives. The sex act in itself was looked upon as a sort of sin by Confucianism.
Sex was only for procreation and to provide a sacred family life.

Men were allowed to see concubines and there was an entire set of Confucianist rules for concubines, such as
grooming rules. A man’s concubine was not allowed to stay in bed after the sex act if his wife was not present
but the concubine had to leave. Even if the concubine was age 50, the man was supposed to have sex with his
concubine every five days. During this time period, there were many sadistic relationship among the Ch’in
dynasty families and many incestous relationships between close kin members of the dynasty.

Later Han Dynasty – 25 AD to 220 AD

With the Han Dynasty came the return of Taoist doctrines, only by this point in time, Taoism was now an
organized religion with its own church and priests. New sexual texts began to surface such as The Handbook
of the Plain Girl
and The Art of the Bedchamber. Both texts referred to a Yellow Emperor, who was attempting
to live a long, healthy life and obtain a form of immortality through sex. Emphasis was placed on breathing
techniques during sex to prolong a man’s orgasm to make a woman orgasm several times to gain her yin essence.

New metaphors and symbolicism evolved in literature to show men and women and their sexuality. The color red
was female, a crucible, the ova, her cinnabar (vulva). The color white became symbolic of men and their semen.
The White Tiger was symbolic of men and the Green Dragon was symbolic of women.

Three Kingdoms & Six Dynasties – 221 AD to 590 AD

During this time frame there were many conflicts between different cultures and the ruling classes during the wars.
There was intermixing between Taoist doctrines, Confucian doctrines and Buddhist doctrines.

Sui Dynasty – 590 AD to 618 AD

Once again, China returned to the Taoist doctrines and new sexual literature and manuals began to flourish.
Such texts included the following:
The Secret Methods of the Plain Girl
Handbook of Sex of the Dark Girl
Recipes of the Plain Girl
Secret Prescriptions for the Bedchamber
Principles of Nurturing
Ishimpo
Secrets of the Jade Chamber

Many of the texts continue the sexual instruction to the Yellow Emperor, trying to tell him how to obtain a long,
immortal healthy life, by having many sexual relations with many women gaining their yin essence without expending
his yang essence, or prolonging his orgasms/ejaculation. All of the texts are very detailed and each has unique sets
of sexual positions with animal-like names for each individual sex position. Sex was seen as a cure-all for every
health ailment that a man had, and different sexual positions were given as prescriptions to cure these ailments.

For Further Readings on Sex in Ancient China:

Dikotter, Frank. (1995) Sex, Culture, and Modernity in China. London: Hurst & Company.
Golden, Paul. (2002) Culture of Sex in Ancient China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Maynes, Mary Jo. (1996) Gender, Kinship, Power: A Comparative & Interdisciplinary History. New York: Routledge.
Ruan, Fangfu. (1991) Sex in China. New York: Plenum Press.
Van Gulik, Robert. (1961) Sexual Life in Ancient China. Netherlands: E. J. Brill.
Wile, Douglas. (1992) Chinese Sexual Yoga Classics Including Women’s Solo Meditation. New York: State University of New York Press.

Cyrus The Great

Cyrus II, Kourosh in Persian, Kouros in Greek

Artistic portrait of Cyrus the Great

Cyrus (580-529 BC) was the first Achaemenid Emperor. He founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes- the Medes and the Persians. Although he was known to be a great conqueror, who at one point controlled one of the greatest Empires ever seen, he is best remembered for his unprecedented tolerance and magnanimous attitude towards those he defeated.

Upon his victory over the Medes, he founded a government for his new kingdom, incorporating both Median and Persian nobles as civilian officials. The conquest of Asia Minor completed, he led his armies to the eastern frontiers. Hyrcania and Parthia were already part of the Median Kingdom. Further east, he conquered Drangiana, Arachosia, Margiana and Bactria. After crossing the Oxus, he reached the Jaxartes, where he built fortified towns with the object of defending the farthest frontier of his kingdom against nomadic tribes of Central Asia.

The victories to the east led him again to the west and sounded the hour for attack on Babylon and Egypt. When he conquered Babylon, he did so to cheers from the Jewish Community, who welcomed him as a liberator- he allowed the Jews to return to the promised Land. He showed great forbearance and respect towards the religious beliefs and cultural traditions of other races. These qualities earned him the respect and homage of all the people over whom he ruled.

Bas-Relief of Cyrus the Great, in Pasargad, Iran

The victory over Babylonia expressed all the facets of the policy of conciliation which Cyrus had followed until then. He presented himself not as a conqueror, but a liberator and the legitimate successor to the crown. He also declared the first Charter of Human Rights known to mankind. He took the title of “King of Babylon and King of the Land”. Cyrus had no thought of forcing conquered people into a single mould, and had the wisdom to leave unchanged the institution of each kingdom he attached to the Persian Crown. In 539 BCE he allowed more than 40,000 Jews to leave Babylon and return to Palestine. This step was in line with his policy to bring peace to Mankind. A new wind was blowing from the east, carrying away the cries and humility of defeated and murdered victims, extinguishing the fires of sacked cities, and liberating nations from slavery.

Cyrus was upright, a great leader of men, generous and benelovent. The Hellenes, whom he conquered regarded him as ‘Law-giver’ and the Jews as ‘the annointed of the Lord’.

Prior to his death, he founded a new capital city at Pasargade in Fars. and had established a government for his Empire. He appointed a governor (satrap) to represent him in each province, however the administration, legistlation, and cultural activities of each province was the responsibility of the Satraps. Accoding to Xenophon Cyrus is also reputed to have devised the first postal system, (Achaemenide achievements). His doctrines were adopted by the future emperors of the Achaemenian dynasty.

Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Writing

The Instruction of Ptahhotep
“No limit may be set to art, neither is there any craftsman
that is fully master of his craft

” The Instruction of Ptahhotep

Champollion & Hieroglyphs

Ancient Egyptian history covers a continuous period of over three thousand years. To put this in perspective – most modern countries count their histories in hundreds of years. Only modern China can come anywhere near this in terms of historical continuity.

Egyptian culture declined and disappeared nearly two thousand years ago. The last vestiges of the living culture ceased to exist in AD 391 when the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I closed all pagan temples throughout the Roman Empire.

It was not until Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798 that the wonderful artefacts of the Egyptians were seen in Europe and their ancient culture began to awaken from its long slumber. In 1799 a French captain named Pierre Bouchard discovered the Rosetta Stone which was carved with the same text in two languages, Egyptian and Greek, and three writing systems, hieroglyphic, demotic, and the Greek alphabet.

This was a tremendous piece of luck because it enabled scholars to unlock the hieroglyphic code and without the stone, we would know nothing of the ancient Egyptians, and the details of their three thousand years of history would remain a mystery.

The man who did more than any other to recover the words of the ancient Egyptians was Jean-François Champollion. He was an historian and brilliant linguist and by the age of sixteen had mastered not only Latin and Greek but six ancient Oriental languages, including Coptic, which was the late form of ancient Egyptian.

Champollion had a unique advantage over others in the task of cracking the hieroglyphic code. Because he understood Coptic he was able to translate the meanings of the ancient Egyptian words.

In the 1820s, Champollion established an entire list of Egyptian symbols with their Greek equivalents and was the first Egyptologist to realize that the symbols were not only alphabetic but syllabic, and in some cases determinative, meaning that they depicted the meaning of the word itself.

ieroglyphic Writing

In this section you will find a basic description of ancient Egyptian writing. I have drawn some Hieroglyphs which you can use to write your name.

There is also a simple name translator. You can write your name in the ancient script.

LINDA

Egyptian Mathematics

In this section you will find a description of Egyptian numerals and how they work.

There is also some mathematical problems set out using the ancient numbers.

12,425 Birds
12,425 Birds

Hieroglyphs showing the words for Father, Mother, Son, Daughter, Brother and Sister.

Pyramids in China



Pyramide2.jpg


Since many years already in the popular scientific community and in publications there are many announcements and contentions of gigantic pyramids in China. The puzzle around the look-up seems final after new discoveries. With the help of Google Earth, the objects are to be seen impressively. It can not be maintained longer, there might be no pyramids in China.!They have four sides and they are even square like the pyramids in Egypt and in Mexico. Its size can quite be matched with those of the Pharaons and of the Inca rulers.

Already in 1912 of the two travel agents Fred Meyer Schroder and Oscar Maman reported of a tremendous building that they had seen in China.“It was more eerie than if we had found them in the wilderness. Here they had been under the nose of the world, but unknown to the western countries… The big pyramid is about 1,000 feet high (other descriptions estimate 1,000 to 1,200 feet high) and roughly 1,500 feet at the base, which makes it twice as large as any pyramid in Egypt. The four faces of the structure are oriented with the compass points,” the two travellers reported.

During the second world war, the pilot of the American Air Force, James Gaussman, with his co-pilot, flow – through a technical defect at his machine -, for several times over a specific territory in China. What he later reported sounds completely unbelievable: “I banked to avoid a mountain and we came out over a level valley. Directly below was a gigantic white pyramid. It looked like something out of a fairy tale. It was encased in shimmering white. This could have been metal, or some sort of stone. It was pure white on all sides. The remarkable thing was the capstone, a huge piece of jewel-like material that could have been crystal. There was no way we could have landed, although we wanted to. We were struck by the immensity of the thing”, the pilots reported.

On March 28, 1947 the “New York Times” reported about that discovery. In an interview with the newspaper, the former far east director of the Transworld Airlines, Maurice Sheahan, says he has seen 40 miles southwest of Xian a gigantic pyramid.“I was impressed by its perfect pyramidal form and its great size,” says Sheahan.

Later, on March 30, 1947 the “New York Sunday Times” take over the report and published at the first the photo, which is actually made in 1945 by Gaussmann, and that was soon forgotten.

The photo of the “white pyramide” of 1947.

In 1978 the New Zealand researcher Bruce L. Cathie bothered itself of a clarification

of the puzzle. According to some correspondence with the Chinese embassy and the US air force he kept up the photo of 1947. He published the picture later in the first edition of his book “The Bridge to Infinity” of 1983. According to the photograph and the reports, the New Zealand researcher estimate that the pyramid must have at their basis a length of 450 meters (1500 feet) and a height of about 300 meters (1000 feet). It is a pyramid with four flat trapezoid shaped sides, a square plateau on the top and a square base, like the pyramids in Egypt and in Mexico. Such pyramids were up to now unknown to the experts in the western world and its existence was always denied: “There are no pyramids in China! Only pagodas – temple liked, peaked buildings”, so the opinion of the world experts.

I came to the “white pyramid” when I already read reports in specialized books before and then I saw the appropriate photograph in the book “The Face on Mars” of 1989 from the two Australian authors Brian Crowley and James J. Hurtak. Brian Crowley then sent a copy of the image in his book to me and then I passed it to Peter Krassa – a Austrian book author and China researcher. Later I published it in my German book “Das Marsgesicht” (The Face on Mars) of 1995.

I have left indeed Peter Krassa the photograph, but I wanted to however make and therefore prove attentive, that there are in fact pyramids in China. At the German edition “Ancient Skies”, the journal of the “Ancient Astronaut Society”, no. 6, 1991, I published a short report. One did not want to however publish the photograph of 1947. Gene Phillips, the founders of the mentioned society, has refused a report from me in the American journal of the Society – with the reason, the photograph could be “something doctored”, somehow falsified. He considered the photograph for a forgery.

However, I was some extent amazed when I saw a German book in a bookshop in Hamburg, Germany – during a lecture trip – with the title “Die weisse Pyramide” (The white pyramid), written by Hartwig Hausdorf, he was until then completely unknown to me. The book appeared in 1994 and then I found out that Peter Krassa had made the photograph available to him – without my knowledge. However, Hartwig Hausdorf mentioned me in his book so the case is functional. Hartwig Hausdorf was very much strove anyway – and that was also my aim – for the thing and he has undertaken several China trips, around the report to go onto the basis. He found several pyramid mountains in China in fact and he has also published photographs from that. These were the first real evidence that there are pyramidal buildings in China exist. The “white pyramid” could constitute Hausdorf nonetheless not.

Bruce L. Cathie announces many details in its book “The bridge to Infinity” over pyramids in China and especially over the “white pyramid” – so too precise coordinate information. They should be had found north of the contemporary city Sian (Xi´an), by the foot of the river Wei-ho – exact at 34.26 degrees of northern width and 108.52 degrees of eastern length. This data were for me very helpful when I searched in September 2006, with “Google Earth” over China after the pyramids. This program was in the last years set up extended from Google into the Internet and one can recognize phantastic details of the Earth’s surface, by means of satellite consumption – as e.g. too the mysterious lines in the plain of Nazca. The solution is not in all fields optimally, nevertheless mostly quite well.

According to some trouble I then kept up after the coordinate information of Bruce L. Cathie two pyramids. As result, I found further, more than twenty and bigger pyramids. They are square earth-pillars, constructed by Chinese craftsmen a long time ago very obviously. The professional world has therefore improper. There are indeed pyramids in China! Google Earth confirmed that again. The biggest one in this area is on 34.23 degrees North and 108.42 degrees East. The opinions diverge via the age of the pyramids. Some speak of 2500 to 3500 years. The legendary “Emperor of the prehistoric time” should at that time have been there.

The pyramids are in the province Shaanxi, north of the city Sian (Xi´an). On the satellite photographs of Google Earth, no “white pyramid” is to be recognized. Under the coordinates 34.26 degrees of Nord and 108.52 degrees East, two pyramids are visible, but however they are not identical to the photo from 1947. The pyramid lying a little southwest, in my opinion, comes onto 34.22 Nord most of all and 108.41 East, north of the small city Hsien-yang into consideration. An arrangement shows similar factors as on the photograph from 1947: A square plateau, grazes (excavations) on the sidewalls, similar ones walkways (streets) and in the background, a small settlement. But that pyramid is definitely not the “white Pyramide”.

In some Internet pages (Chris Maier) and in the homepage of wikipedia, the Maoling mausoleum is compared with the “white pyramid”. And that is in actual fact correct. Already on former satellite images which were published in the homepage of earthquest.co.uk of November 2001, that is to be recognized. With Google Earth, this pyramid – although at present another with bad resolution – is it to be seen also. They lies west of the pyramids of Hsien-yang, close to the city Xianyang, on 30.20 degrees North and 108.34 degrees East.

The “white pyramid” needs not to be a tremendous mystic building. The pilots and the travel agents to see the Maoling mausoleum, with his size – according to the measurements via Google Earth – of about 222 to 217 meters on the ground and his height of about 46 meters, can quite have appeared below glistening sunlight glimmering and quite big. No other pyramid in this area is so big. Only the one on 34.23 North and 108.42 East, which has a size of 219 to 230 meters on the ground. The wellknown Shi Huang-ti Mausoleum, situated 50 kilometers East, has a size of 357 to 354 meters on the base and the whole complex has a size of 488 to 581 meters. But that grave mountain is actually a square mound and not a pyramid. Attainable is the area near Hsien-yang over the city Xi´an (Sian) obvious the airport that Hartwig Hausdorf with some traveling companions already used in 1994. They could for instance constitute seventeen pyramids within a radius of about three kilometers and they estimated its heights at sixty to seventy meters.

China’s ancient warriors unveiled in Santa Ana

Hes_more_than_2200_years_old_and_si The largest-ever display of the terra cotta warriors from Xian, China, opens today at the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana, Diane Haithman reports.

“…an army of ancient Chinese soldiers who were buried for 2,000 years will march into Santa Ana’s Bowers Museum, the result of the largest loan of terra cotta figures and artifacts to visit the United States since their astonishing 1974 discovery.”

Actually, the 14 life-size human figures were already in town, having landed May 4 at Ontario International Airport and been transported, complete with police and helicopter escort, to the museum. The warriors — not only fighters but also court officials, acrobats and generals, though no females — will be on display through Oct. 12 in “Terra Cotta Warriors: Guardians of China’s First Emperor,” a sample of the contents of the vast tomb complex of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

The warriors came toting plenty of “luggage” that would never fit in the overhead compartment: about 100 sets of objects including weapons and armor. Also on board: a life-sized terra cotta cavalry horse, as well as a