China’s economy has witnessed a rapid development, so has that in regions where ethnic minorities live.
Stockbreeding serves as one of the major industries in minorities’ economy and since the endorsement of individual responsibility system for meadows and livestock in 1980s, livestock are sold to individuals and right to the use of meadow endowed to households; meanwhile, measures have been strengthened to boost the development of meadow and improve its protection and management. At present, rapid development has been achieved in China’s major pasture regions, including Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. Statistics shows that at present the total number of livestock in China’s pasture regions and semi-pasture and semi-farming regions has reached over 100 million each year. The rate of mature livestock has raised and the survival rate and the commercialization rate of livestock have also witnessed a significant increase. In addition, there are family-run ranches in some of China’s pasture regions and their production capacity and business performance have been greatly enhanced due to large-scale business management and adoption of advanced techniques in their production. Continue reading Economy of Ethnic Minorities in China
In order to spur the technological development in ethnic minorities’ regions, the Chinese government has adopted a series of preferential policies as follows: it gives priority to the cultivation and training of science and technology personnel from ethnic groups, admits minority students to public universities according to special enrollment plans, opens classes on campus exclusively for minority students and establishes popular majors in minorities universities or colleges to bring up more people with relevant expertise that are in short supply in society. Meanwhile, it has taken effective measures to train the existing technology personnel from minority groups, help introduce more talents and advanced equipment for minority people and their regions and upgrade traditional industries and products to enhance the business performance. Moreover, the Chinese government has established and improved the system for technology promotion in rural and pasture areas in order to boost the education and training of practical technology and help translate scientific achievements into real productivity in these regions. In addition, it has adopted some preferential policies concerning work condition and living standard to encourage more science and technology experts to make achievements in ethnic minorities’ regions. Last but not least, the government has urged the developed regions in other parts of China to take measures to expand their technology assistance to minority regions. These measures include: inviting experts to take a part-time job in minority regions, encouraging technology personnel to give lectures or work for a short-term period in these regions, help train their counterparts from ethnic groups and carry out technology cooperation with them. At present, a number of research institutes which are related to the national economy development, the need of people’s life and the actual condition of ethnic groups have been established in regions where ethnic minorities live and the scientific research system with various disciplines and research team with corresponding research orientations have also been shaped.
Statistics shows that the number of scientists and engineers from ethnic minority regions has reached nearly 100 thousand and these technology experts are playing an increasingly important role in the scientific and technological advancement of our country. Some of them are academicians of Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, some leaders of scientific projects, and some outstanding contributors for translating scientific achievements into real products. For instance, academician Wang Shiwen of Chinese Academy of Science, who comes from Hui nationality, devotes herself to the clinic and scientific research and teaching of cardiopathy and first aid study for the elderly and makes remarkable contribution to the development of medical study of elderly people in China as an emerging discipline. Academician Wei Yu of Chinese Academy of Engineering, who comes from Zhuang nationality, holds the doctorate of the Technological University of Aachen in Germany and is one of the trial-blazers of electro-biology and bio-computation as brand-new arenas in the world. Senior researcher of agricultural science Zheng Huiyu, who comes from Korean nationality, dedicates herself into the study of breeding and variety resources of soybean and one of her masterpieces is the Jilin No.20 Soybean with small granule.
Han people enjoy the largest population among China’s 56 nationalities and this population size also ranks first in the world. At present, the number of Han people has reached about 1.2 billion. Originally known as “Cathay”, Han people used to live in the central part of China; later, it assimilated and integrated with other nationalities and eventually boasts a 5 thousand years’ history of civilization. Since the beginning of Han Dynasty, the name “Han” was adopted to call this nationality. Han nationality has its own spoken and written language, which belong to Chinese-Tibetan language family. Its language falls into 8 categories of dialect, namely, dialect of northern China, dialect of south of the lower reaches of Yangtze River, Hunan dialect, Jiangxi dialect, Hakka dialect, dialect of southern Fujian, dialect of northern Fujian and Cantonese and the common language of these 8 dialects is Mandarin. Chinese letter is one of the most ancient letters in the world; it evolved from inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells of the Shang Dynasty and Nuchen letters and eventually became present-day Chinese characters. There are altogether over 80 thousand Chinese characters, among which about 7000 are commonly used. At present, Chinese has become one of the international languages. The staple food of Han people is grain crop and meat and vegetables are the non-staple foodstuffs. Over the long period of development, Han people have developed the habit of having three meals for each day and rice and flour serve as two major components of their staple food. In addition, other coarse crops, such as corn, sorghum, cereal and potato, are also part of the staple food in different regions of China. Due to various factors, there are varied types of cuisine in the food culture of Han people and when it comes to the Han and other nationalities’ preference of taste of food, people living in different parts of China are often termed as follows: the southern citizens are lovers of sweet food, the northern of salty food, the eastern of hot food and the western of sour food. At present, there are 8 typical cuisines with unique flavors in different parts of China, including Hunan cuisine, Sichuan cuisine, cuisine of northeastern China and Cantonese food. Wine and tea are two major beverages for Han people. Being the place of origin of tea and one of the first developers of brewing technology, China boasts long history of wine and tea culture. Except for wine and tea, some products made of fruits also serve as beverages for people in varied regions and seasons. There are myriads of festivals for Han people and China’s Lunar New Year is the most traditional one. Besides, the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month of lunar calendar, the Tomb-sweeping day on Apr.5th, the Dragon Boat Festival on the 5th day of the fifth lunar month and the Middle Autumn Day on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month are also important festivals. Continue reading Nationalities Whose Population Is above 5 Million
The third dynasty Zhou, was established in 1027 BC and it was destroyed by Qin in 256 BC, lasting approximately 770 years. It can be divided into two periods by the move of the capital West Zhou and East Zhou. The latter of which consists in two stages —— Spring and Autumn, Warring States.
West Zhou lasted from 1027 BC to 771 BC. The first king, Wu, moved the capital to Gao and demolished Shang. After the enthronement of Cheng, Zhougong suppressed the riots and more importantly, he carried out many measures to strengthen the newly-built dynasty. The system of conventions includes Jingtianzhi, Zongfazhi, Guoyezhi and Liyue, to name a few important ones. Continue reading Zhou Dynasty
Liu Bang, established the Han Empire and settled down in the capital Chang’an.
During the 7-year dominion of Hangaozu, the central regime was further reinforced and the policy “Recuperate and Multiply” was adopted. After Hui’s succession, the empress of Hangaozu gained power. who was one of the rare women rulers in the history of China. Wen succeeded to the throne in 183 BC. Wen, followed by his son, Jing, stuck to the policy of “Recuperate and Multiply”, decreased taxation and promoted the economy of the empire. (The Enlightenment of Wen/Jing) Continue reading Han Dynasty
Having witnessed more than 2,000 years of slave society, the history of China welcomed the birth of the first consolidated, centralized, feudal empire. This dynasty was the Qin (in 221 B.C), whose significance would be recognized in the later ages.
In the States and Warring period (from 475 BC to 222 B.C), namely the end of the slave society, many small states battled with each other. Seven strong states survived, which were called the “Seven Powers”, namely, Qin, Qi, Chu, Wei, Yan, Han, and Zhao. Qin, situated in the northwestern region, carried out earlier reformations of agriculture and military affairs and flourished quickly. In the year of 247 B.C, Yinzheng was enthroned, who at the time was only 13 years old. Later, at the age of 22, Yinzheng was in control. He began to make efforts to swallow up the other six powers and consolidate China. He recruited talents, such as Zhengguo who was the spy from Zheng, whom Zhengguo Dyke was named after. This helped to turn the 40 thousand hectares of saline-alkali soil into fertile farmland. This would supply enough to influence consolidation. In less than 10 years, Yin annihilated the remaining six powers and succeeded to make out a new vast empire. As a result, the Qin Empire was established and Yin has been called the “The first Emperor”. Continue reading Qin Dynasty