The third dynasty Zhou, was established in 1027 BC and it was destroyed by Qin in 256 BC, lasting approximately 770 years. It can be divided into two periods by the move of the capital West Zhou and East Zhou. The latter of which consists in two stages —— Spring and Autumn, Warring States.
West Zhou lasted from 1027 BC to 771 BC. The first king, Wu, moved the capital to Gao and demolished Shang. After the enthronement of Cheng, Zhougong suppressed the riots and more importantly, he carried out many measures to strengthen the newly-built dynasty. The system of conventions includes Jingtianzhi, Zongfazhi, Guoyezhi and Liyue, to name a few important ones. Continue reading Zhou Dynasty
In the Chinese academia, Xia is considered to be the earliest dynasty of ancient times, but most of our knowledge about Xia dynasty, depends upon the documents of the succeeding dynasties and has not been confirmed yet. Shang, of ancient times, is the first dynasty which can be verified by precise archaeological materials. Now let’s introduce it to you.
Shang was founded in 16 century BC, and became extinct in 11 century BC, lasting 600 years. Shang moved its capital to another place many times, and finally settled down at Yin (near Anyang of Henan). Archaeological studies verify that in its early days, Chinese civilization had been highly developed. Its main characteristic is the inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells and bronze culture. Continue reading Shang Dynasty
The Wei and Jin period lasted from 220 to 589 A.D. By the end of 2th century, Eastern Han power was declining, resulting in a long split of states. For example, Wei, Shu and Wu were three major kingdoms then. The Three Kingdoms Period was ended by the Western Jin, though it survived for mere 52 years from 265 to 316 A.D. China again entered a time of chaos after Western Jin’s short reunification. Eastern Jin (317-420 A.D.) was then established by the remaining baronages south of the Yangtze River. In the chaotic north, sixteen kingdoms came into being and strived for power. Continue reading Wei Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties
In 581 A.D, China was reunified by the short-lived Sui dynasty, which lasted 37 years until 618 A.D., when Yang Guang, the successor of Emperor Sui Wen Di, was hanged. Sui dynasty’s early demise was attributed to the government’s tyrannical demands on the people, who bore the crushing burden of taxes and compulsory labor. These resources were overstrained in the completion of the Grand Canal (a monumental engineering feat) and in the undertaking of other construction projects, including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. Yang Jian, the founder of the dynasty, made some contributions to abolish cruel penalties and establish new ways to select court officials. Continue reading Sui and Tang Dynasty
By: Michael Weiskopf
Picture courtesy of Marco Prins & Jona Lendering (Livius)
Dascylium, Achaemenid satrapy in northwestern Anatolia (Herodotus, 3.120.2; cf. Thucydides 1.129.1: tê`n Daskulitìn satrapeían; OPers. tayaiy drayahyâ; DB 1.15; Kent, Old Persian, p. 117), part of the Persian empire until the 330s B.C.E. The borders varied, extending as far south as the Mysian plain and the southern Troad and east into the land of the Bithynian peoples; some satraps controlled both sides of the Hellespont. The territory of Dascylium encompassed estates, garrisoned fortresses, and cities and villages in which Persians and other groups were mingled. The name Dascylium was also applied to a number of sites within the satrapy, the most important being the satrapal estate located at modern Hisartepe on the southwestern shore of Lake Manyas, near the village of Ergili. Continue reading ACHAEMENID DASCYLIUM