Mencius

Mencius was also a great representative of the Confucianism. Born some one hundred years later than Confucius in the state of Zou in today’s Shandong province, he was considered the second-greatest Confucian philosopher, or the “Second Sage”.

Mencius continued the ethical teachings of Confucius by stressing the innate goodness of human nature. He believed, however, that original human goodness can become depraved through one’s own destructive effort or through contact with an evil environment. The problem of moral cultivation is therefore to preserve or at least to restore the goodness that is one’s birthright. Continue reading Mencius

Technology of Ethnic Minorities in China

In order to spur the technological development in ethnic minorities’ regions, the Chinese government has adopted a series of preferential policies as follows: it gives priority to the cultivation and training of science and technology personnel from ethnic groups, admits minority students to public universities according to special enrollment plans, opens classes on campus exclusively for minority students and establishes popular majors in minorities universities or colleges to bring up more people with relevant expertise that are in short supply in society. Meanwhile, it has taken effective measures to train the existing technology personnel from minority groups, help introduce more talents and advanced equipment for minority people and their regions and upgrade traditional industries and products to enhance the business performance. Moreover, the Chinese government has established and improved the system for technology promotion in rural and pasture areas in order to boost the education and training of practical technology and help translate scientific achievements into real productivity in these regions. In addition, it has adopted some preferential policies concerning work condition and living standard to encourage more science and technology experts to make achievements in ethnic minorities’ regions. Last but not least, the government has urged the developed regions in other parts of China to take measures to expand their technology assistance to minority regions. These measures include: inviting experts to take a part-time job in minority regions, encouraging technology personnel to give lectures or work for a short-term period in these regions, help train their counterparts from ethnic groups and carry out technology cooperation with them. At present, a number of research institutes which are related to the national economy development, the need of people’s life and the actual condition of ethnic groups have been established in regions where ethnic minorities live and the scientific research system with various disciplines and research team with corresponding research orientations have also been shaped.

Statistics shows that the number of scientists and engineers from ethnic minority regions has reached nearly 100 thousand and these technology experts are playing an increasingly important role in the scientific and technological advancement of our country. Some of them are academicians of Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, some leaders of scientific projects, and some outstanding contributors for translating scientific achievements into real products. For instance, academician Wang Shiwen of Chinese Academy of Science, who comes from Hui nationality, devotes herself to the clinic and scientific research and teaching of cardiopathy and first aid study for the elderly and makes remarkable contribution to the development of medical study of elderly people in China as an emerging discipline. Academician Wei Yu of Chinese Academy of Engineering, who comes from Zhuang nationality, holds the doctorate of the Technological University of Aachen in Germany and is one of the trial-blazers of electro-biology and bio-computation as brand-new arenas in the world. Senior researcher of agricultural science Zheng Huiyu, who comes from Korean nationality, dedicates herself into the study of breeding and variety resources of soybean and one of her masterpieces is the Jilin No.20 Soybean with small granule.

The Cultivation and Selection of Ethnic Minority Cadres

Chinese government attaches great importance to the cultivation of ethnic minority cadres. The number of ethnic minority cadres has greatly increased and many of them have been selected to hold a leading position in governments of county level or above. At present, the chairpersons of 5 autonomous regions, as well as the heads of 30 autonomous prefectures and 119 autonomous counties or banners in China, are all from ethnic groups.
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Chinese Government’s Policy toward Ethnic Minorities

China is a united and multi-national country. The Chinese government adopts the policy of equality, unity and mutual assistance among different nationalities and respects and protects the religious freedom and customs of ethnic minorities.

Regional national autonomy is an important political system in China. It means under the leadership of Chinese central government, regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities and organs of self-government are established in these areas to exercise the power of autonomy. The central government ensures areas where regional national autonomy is practiced implement laws and policies of China according to their actual situations; it also encourages and supports the cultivation of a number of cadres of all levels, professionals of various fields and skilled workers among minority nationalities. People of various nationalities in areas where regional autonomy is practiced, together with all the others in China, are concentrating on the socialist modernization drive under the leadership of the Communist Party of China in order to accelerate the economic and cultural development of these areas and make their self-governed hometowns more stable and prosperous.
Continue reading Chinese Government’s Policy toward Ethnic Minorities

Ancient Iran : The Sassanid

Map of the Sassanid Empire

Bahram II and Narseh

The Persian Emperor Bahram died the same year as Mani — in 276 — and was succeeded by his son, Bahram II. The priest Kartir remained a dominant figure under Bahram II. The persecution of Manichaeans (Manicheans) continued and included the persecution of Christians, Jews and Buddhists. Then, sometime during the reign of Bahram II, Kartir died, and religious tolerance began to reassert itself. Bahram II was relatively tolerant. He had been influenced by his grandfather, Shapur I.  He had become acquainted with Hellenistic culture and was offended by the zealotry of the Zoroastrians. As with the autocracies before, freedom to worship depended upon the whim of the ruler, and for awhile persecution was lifted from the Manichaeans, Christians and Jews. Continue reading Ancient Iran : The Sassanid

Sumeria, Ancient Sumeria (Sumer), A history of Ancient Sumer Including its Contributions

Ancient Sumeria

Primary Author: Robert A. Guisepi

Portions of this work Contributed By:
F. Roy Willis of the University of California

1980 and 2003


* The History of Ancient Sumeria including its cities, kings and religions

Now, I swear by the sun god Utu on this very day — and my younger brothers shall be witness of it in foreign lands where the sons of Sumer are not known, where people do not have the use of paved roads, where they have no access to the written word — that I, the firstborn son, am a fashioner of words, a composer of songs, a composer of words, and that they will recite my songs as heavenly writings, and that they will bow down before my words……

King Shulgi (c. 2100 BC) on the future of Sumerian literature.

Mesopotamia: The First Civilization

Authorities do not all agree about the definition of civilization. Most accept the view that “a civilization is a culture which has attained a degree of complexity usually characterized by urban life.” In other words, a civilization is a culture capable of sustaining a substantial number of specialists to cope with the economic, social, political, and religious needs of a populous society. Other characteristics usually present in a civilization include a system of writing to keep records, monumental architecture in place of simple buildings, and an art that is no longer merely decorative, like that on Neolithic pottery, but representative of people and their activities. All these characteristics of civilization first appeared in Mesopotamia.

The Geography Of Mesopotamia Continue reading Sumeria, Ancient Sumeria (Sumer), A history of Ancient Sumer Including its Contributions