Selected Bibliography

Abraham, Richard, Rosa Luxemburg.

Abboushi, W.F., The Unmaking of Palestine. Continue reading Selected Bibliography

Akkadian Language

Akkadian was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. It used the cuneiform writing system derived ultimately from ancient Sumerian, an unrelated, non-Semitic language. The name of the language is derived from the city of Akkad, a major center of Mesopotamian civilization.

Dialects

Akkadian is divided into dialects based on geography and historical period:

  • Old Akkadian – 2500 ­ 1950 BCE
  • Old Babylonian/Old Assyrian – 1950 ­ 1530 BCE
  • Middle Babylonian/Middle Assyrian – 1530 ­ 1000 BCE
  • Neo-Babylonian/Neo-Assyrian – 1000 ­ 600 BCE
  • Late Babylonian – 600 BCE ­ 100 CE

Clay Tablets – Cuneform

Akkadian scribes wrote the language using cuneiform script, an earlier writing system devised by the Sumerians using wedge-shaped signs pressed in wet clay that in Akkadian could represent either (a) Sumerian logograms (i.e. picture-based characters as in Chinese), (b) Sumerian syllables, (c) Akkadian syllables, and (d) phonetic complements. Cuneiform was in many ways unsuited to Akkadian: among its flaws was its inability to represent important phonemes in Semitic, including a glottal stop, pharyngeals, and emphatic consonants. In addition, cuneiform was a syllabary writing system – i.e. a consonant plus vowel comprised one writing unit – frequently inappropriate for a Semitic language made up of triconsonantal roots (i.e. three consonants minus any vowels). Older Sumerian cuneiform also distinguished between the vowels i and e; this distinction, though not originally present in Akkadian, was adopted by scribes to compensate for the disappearance (or non-writing) of the original Semitic pharyngeals.

Akkadian grammar

Akkadian is an inflected language, and as a Semitic language its grammatical features are highly similar to those found in Classical Arabic. It possesses two genders (masculine and feminine), distinguished even in second person pronouns (you-masc., you-fem.) and verb conjugations; three cases for nouns and adjectives (nominative, accusative, and genitive); three numbers (singular, dual, and plural); and unique verb conjugations for each first, second, and third person pronoun.

Akkadian nouns are declined according to gender, number and case. There are three genders; masculine, feminine and common. Only a very few nouns belong to the common gender. There are also three cases (nominative, accusative and genitive) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural). Adjectives are declined exactly like nouns.

Akkadian nouns are declined according to gender, number and case. There are three genders; masculine, feminine and common. Only a very few nouns belong to the common gender. There are also three cases (nominative, accusative and genitive) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural). Adjectives are declined exactly like nouns.

The remaining root stems are all derived from the first eight and are very similar in meaning. Akkadian verbs usually display the tri-consonantal root, though some roots with two- or four-consonant roots also exist. These are called radicals. There are three tenses, present, preterite and permansive. Present tense indicates incomplete action and preterite tense indicates complete action, while permansive tense expresses a state or condition and usually takes a particle.

Akkadian, unlike Arabic, has mainly regular plurals (i.e. no broken plurals), although some masculine words take feminine plurals. In that respect, it is similar to Hebrew.

Word Order

Akkadian sentence order was subject + object + verb (SOV), which sets it apart from most other Semitic languages such as Arabic and Hebrew, which typically have a verb + subject + object (VSO) word order. (South Semitic languages in Ethiopia are another matter altogether.) It has been hypothesized that this word order was a result of influence from the Sumerian language, which was also SOV. There is evidence that native speakers of both languages were in intimate language contact, forming a single society for at least 500 years, so it is entirely likely that a sprachbund could have formed. Further evidence of an original VSO or SVO ordering can be found in the fact that direct and indirect object pronouns are suffixed to the verb. Word order seems to have shifted to SVO/VSO late in the 1st millennium BC to the 1st millennium AD, possibly under the influence of Aramaic.

Akkadian literature

Among the works written in Akkadian cuneiform are the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Atrahasis Epic. The Atrahasis Epic was a story writted in the early 2nd millennium B.C. in Akkadian. It is a cosmological epic that depicts the creation and early human history, including a flood. Its hero is Atrahasis. The flood account in tablet III of the Atrahasis Epic has much resemblance to that contained in the Gilgamesh Epic.

Reference: Mercer, Samuel A B (1961) Introductory Assyrian Grammar

A letter on a clay tablet, written in Akkadian cuneiform, found in Amarna  - Akkad اكد -  Chaldean Assyrian Syrian Iraqi Arab in Toronto Chaldean

A letter on a clay tablet, written in Akkadian cuneiform, found in Amarna

Akkadian period, reign of Naram-Sin  -  Akkad اكد -  Chaldean Assyrian Syrian Iraqi Arab in Toronto Chaldean

Akkadian period, reign of Naram-Sin

Akkad اكد -  Chaldean Assyrian Syrian Iraqi Arab in Toronto Chaldean

Akkad اكد -  Chaldean Assyrian Syrian Iraqi Arab in Toronto Chaldean

Mencius

Mencius was also a great representative of the Confucianism. Born some one hundred years later than Confucius in the state of Zou in today’s Shandong province, he was considered the second-greatest Confucian philosopher, or the “Second Sage”.

Mencius continued the ethical teachings of Confucius by stressing the innate goodness of human nature. He believed, however, that original human goodness can become depraved through one’s own destructive effort or through contact with an evil environment. The problem of moral cultivation is therefore to preserve or at least to restore the goodness that is one’s birthright. Continue reading Mencius

Lao Zi – Ancient Chinese Philosopher

Lao Zi, also Li Dan by name, live in late Spring and Autumn Period(585 BC –500 BC). He was from the state of Chu and once was the librarian and archivist of the royal court of Zhou Dynasty. He was a knowledgeable person that even the great Confucius had once consulted him on things that he couldn’t understand as a young man. Lao Zi authored the book Dao De Jing, the classic for Daoism. Continue reading Lao Zi – Ancient Chinese Philosopher

Education of Ethnic Minorities in China

Education serves as the cornerstone of science and technology advancement and Chinese government has adopted a series of preferential policies and treatments to develop education of ethnic minorities as follows: it highlights and helps the ethnic groups to develop their own education and establishes special institutions for democratic education management; Meanwhile, it entitles and respects ethnic minorities and places where national autonomy are practiced to develop education in their own way, attaches great importance to the education of minorities’ corresponding languages and bilingual education and redoubles its efforts to develop textbooks written in their languages; besides, it strengthens measures to develop minorities’ own teaching staffs and provides special financial treatment to ethnic minorities and places where they live; furthermore, it establishes various types of school in accordance with the actual situation of ethnic minorities and their residential areas and it adopts special enrollment policy in designated regions where ethnic groups live in compact community in order to cultivate more people with corresponding expertise for these regions; last but not least, it provides favorable treatment in enrollment and campus life for ethnic students and encourages developed regions in other part of China to establish regular tie of assistance with corresponding areas where ethnic minorities live. Continue reading Education of Ethnic Minorities in China