Han Dynasty

Liu Bang, established the Han Empire and settled down in the capital Chang’an.

During the 7-year dominion of Hangaozu, the central regime was further reinforced and the policy “Recuperate and Multiply” was adopted. After Hui’s succession, the empress of Hangaozu gained power. who was one of the rare women rulers in the history of China. Wen succeeded to the throne in 183 BC. Wen, followed by his son, Jing, stuck to the policy of “Recuperate and Multiply”, decreased taxation and promoted the economy of the empire. (The Enlightenment of Wen/Jing)

Through Wen/Jing period, Han became stronger. Wu was enthroned in 141 BC, and enlarged the territory of the empire and maintained the prosperity of economy and culture by having the Huns driven out of the Hetao region by the aid of his favorite generals – Weiqing and Huoqubing. The West Han Empire managed to reach its summit in the rule of Zhao.

However, regional power would not be at rest. Unluckily the ruler of West Han, usurped the throne in 8 AD, and a brief empire would be in sight, the Xin.

West Han Empire is one of the richest and strongest empires in history. The policy of “Recuperate and Multiply” took effect and people led a safe and sound life. Wu adopted the proposal by Dongzhongshu -“Confucius is the sole teacher.” Since then, the school of Confucius has been conformed to it for thousands of years.

Thanks to the stabilization and tranquilization of the empire, handicraft industry, commerce, science, literature and art prospered. Efficiency had been greatly promoted in handicraft industry, of which metallurgy and textile industry stood as the two pillars. Commerce had been forwarded and the Silk Road pioneered the widespread and profound exchange with the countries of West Asia.

Liu Xiu, established East Han, which lasted from 25 AD to 220 AD. In 25, with the aid of “Greenwood Arms”, Liuxiu defeated Wangmang and settled down in Luoyang. In 26, he ordered that all the measures adopted by Wang should be annulled and he carried out many effective measures. The post of Shangshu was been set up, and government slaves were freed. Land was repartitioned and people could lead a self-supported life. Until the middle of the first century, East Han Empire had regained and recovered, historically called “Guangwu Nourishment”. As a result of the harmony between the central and local powers, stability was regained in the early years of East Han Empire. This surpassed the Xi Han Empire in every field; economy, culture and science. In 105 AD, Cailun offered papermaking in transforming the bamboo printing which is one of the four greatest inventions of China.

Zhang Heng, would be forever memorized for his Huntianyi and seismograph, and Huatuo for his original surgery on patients with the aid of anesthesia.


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