The 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt – Eighteen

The 18th Dynasty starts not with the accession of a new royal family to the throne, but with the reign of Ahmose, a brother or nephew of his predecessor Kamose, who is counted as the last king of the previous dynasty.

After about a decade of relative peace and status quo with the Hyksos who still controlled the northern half of the country, the Theban king Ahmose rekindled Kamose’s war against these foreign rulers. Within 5 years, he succeeded in expelling them from his country, reuniting it back under the sole rule of one Egyptian king. Continue reading The 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt – Eighteen

1100-1450: Gothic Architecture

Architecture History Photo Guide: Gothic Architecture

Early in the 12th century, new ways of building meant that cathedrals and other large buildings could reach soaring heights.
Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France is a masterpiece of Gothic ArchitectureBuilt in the thirteenth century, Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France is a masterpiece of Gothic Architecture

Photo © Paolo Negri / Getty Images

How Gothic Architecture Began
Gothic architecture began mainly in France where builders began to adapt the earlier Romanesque style. Builders were also influenced by the pointed arches and elaborate stonework of Moorish architecture in Spain. One of the earliest Gothic buildings was the ambulatory of the abbey of St. Denisin France, built between 1140 and 1144.

Originally, Gothic architecture was known as the French Style. During the Renaissance, after the French Style had fallen out of fashion, artisans mocked it. They coined the word Gothic to suggest that French Style buildings were the crude work of German (Goth) barbarians. Although the label wasn’t accurate, the name Gothic remained.

Gothic architecture has many of these features:

  • Pointed Arches. Gothic builders found that pointed arches could support more weight than perpendicular walls. With pointed arches supporting the roof, walls could be thinner.
  • Ribbed Vaulting. Instead of solid walls, builders used a series of columns that branched up into arches. With fewer solid walls, buildings appeared lighter and more delicate.
  • Flying Buttresses. Free-standing brick and stone arches helped support exterior walls, allowing them to reach greater heights.
  • Stained Glass Windows. Since the walls were no longer the only supports, Gothic buildings could include large areas of glass.
  • Elaborate Sculptures. Gargoyles and other sculptures had both practical and decorative functions.

Gothic Buildings:

Photo Tours:

Art During the Gothic Period:
While builders were creating the great Gothic cathedrals of Europe, painters and sculptors in northern Italy were breaking away from rigid medieval styles and laying the foundation for the Renaissance. Art historians call the period between 1200 to 1400 AD the Early Renaissance or the Proto-Renaissance. Learn more about the Proto-Renaissance. Gothic Revival and Neo-Gothic Architecture:
Fascination for medieval Gothic architecture was reawakened in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Architects in Europe and the United States designed great buildings and private homes that imitated the cathedrals of medieval Europe.

850 BC-476 AD: Architecture of Classical egypt

The Classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome has shaped the way we build today.
The Parthenon sets on top of the Acropolis in Athens, GreeceThe Parthenon sets on top of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece.

Press photo © 2000-2006 NewOpenWorld Foundation

How Classical Architecture Began
From the rise of ancient Greece until the fall of the Roman empire, great buildings were constructed according to precise rules. The Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius, who lived during first century BC, believed that builders should use mathematical principles when constructing temples. “For without symmetry and proportion no temple can have a regular plan,” Vitruvius wrote in his famous treatise De Architectura, or Ten Books on Architecture(compare prices).The Classical Orders
In his writings, Marcus Vitruvius introduced the Classical orders, which defined column styles and entablature designs used in Classical architecture. The earliest Classical orders were Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.

Classical Periods
700 BC-323 BC: Greek. The Doric column was first developed in Greece and it was used for great temples, including the famous Parthenon in Athens. Simple Ionic columns were used for smaller temples and building interiors.

323 BC-146 BC: Hellenistic. When Greece was at the height of its power in Europe and Asia, the empire built elaborate temples and secular buildings with Ionic and Corinthian columns. The Hellenistic period ended with conquests by the Roman Empire.

44 BC-476 AD: Roman. The Romans borrowed heavily from the earlier Greek and Hellenistic styles, but their buildings were more highly ornamented. They used Corinthian and composite style columns along with decorative brackets. The invention of concrete allowed the Romans to build arches, vaults, and domes. A famous example of Roman architecture is the Roman Colosseum. To learn more about architecture in Ancient Rome, see: Architecture of the Ancient Roman Empire. To view 3D images of Rome as it looked in 320 AD, download the free Google Earth.

From Classical to Neoclassical
More than 1,500 years after the Roman architect Vitruvius wrote his important book, the Renaissance architect Giacomo da Vignola outlined Vitruvius’s ideas in a treatise titled The Five Orders of Architecture (compare prices). Published in 1563, The Five Orders of Architecture became a guide for builders throughout western Europe.

In 1570, another Renaissance architect, Andrea Palladio, used the new technology of movable type to publish I Quattro Libri dell’ Architettura, or The Four Books of Architecture (compare prices). In this book, Palladio showed how Classical rules could be used not just for grand temples but also for private villas. Palladio’s ideas spread across Europe and into the New World, giving rise to a variety of Neoclassical styles.

3,050 BC-900 BC: Architecture of Ancient Egypt

The pyramid form was a marvel of engineering that allowed ancient Egyptians to build enormous structures.
Pyramids of Giza, EgyptThe most famous pyramids in Egypt are the Pyramids of Giza, built more than 2,000 years B.C. to shelter and safeguard the souls of Egyptian pharaohs.

Press photo © 2000-2006 NewOpenWorld Foundation

Construction in Ancient Egypt
Wood was not widely available in the arid Egyptian landscape. Houses in ancient Egypt were made with blocks of sun-baked mud. Flooding of the Nile River and the ravages of time destroyed most of these ancient homes.Much of what we know about ancient Egypt is based on great temples and tombs, which were made with granite and limestone and decorated with hieroglyphics, carvings, and brightly colored frescoes. The ancient Egyptians didn’t use mortar, so the stones were carefully cut to fit together.

Pyramids in Egypt
The development of the pyramid form allowed Egyptians to build enormous tombs for their kings. The sloping walls could reach great heights because their weight was supported by the wide pyramid base. An innovative Egyptian named Imhotep is said to have designed one of the earliest of the massive stone monuments, the Step Pyramid of Djoser (2,667 BC – 2,648 BC).

Columns in Egypt
Builders in ancient Egypt didn’t use load-bearing arches. Instead, columns were placed close together to support the heavy stone entablature above. Brightly painted and elaborately carved, the columns often mimicked palms, papyrus plants, and other plant forms. Over the centuries, at least thirty distinct column styles evolved. Learn more: Egyptian Column Styles

Influences of Egyptian Architecture
Archaeological discoveries in Egypt reawakened an interest in the ancient temples and monuments. Egyptian Revival architecture became fashionable during the 1800s. In the early 1900s, the discovery of King Tut’s tomb stirred a fascination for Egyptian artifacts and the rise of Art Deco architecture.

Wonders of Ancient Egypt

2,575 BC – 2,134 BC: Old Kingdom

  • Abu Ghurab
  • Dahshur
  • Ras Budran
  • Step Pyramid of Djoser
  • The Giza Pyramids
  • The Sphinx

2,040 BC – 1,640 BC: Middle Kingdom

  • Abydos
  • Karnak
  • Thebes
  • Luxor Temple
  • Temples of Karnak
  • Serabit el-Khadem
  • Tell el Dab’a

1,550 BC -1,070 BC: New Kingdom

  • Tombos
  • Piramesses
  • Abu Simbel
  • Amarna
  • Deir el Bahri
  • Kush Kingdom
  • Deir el Medina
  • Tutankhamun’s Tomb (Tomb of “King Tut”)


Queen Tiy and Queen Nefertiti Merged into One

by Damien F. Mackey

This article will really be a dramatic development of the already radical conclusions at which I had arrived in “The Shattering Fall of Queen Nefertiti”, in which I had identified Nefertiti as the biblical Queen Jezebel, and had identified the overseer of Jezebel’s death, general Jehu, with Nefertiti’s contemporary, Horemheb.


Based on Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky’s most important re-location of the conventional historians’ ‘C14th BC’ to the C9th BC, as discussed in his Ages in Chaos series, I was able to propose a new identification of Queen Nefertiti (supposedly of the C14th BC), with the biblical Queen Jezebel of the C9th BC. Jehu then fitted perfectly into this scenario as Horemheb. That was already radical enough, but I think that it worked. If it did, then it provided the answers to those basic questions concerning Nefertiti about which the Egyptologists do not have the answers – and that despite her immense fame. For example:

From whence did Nefertiti come?

When and how did her life end? And:

Do we have a mummy for her?

But all that, apparently, did not exhaust the biblico-historical potential of this fascinating queen. In this article, which might be regarded as Part Two of “The Shattering Fall of Queen Nefertiti”, I expect to be able to add some significant further dimensions to Queen Nefertiti-Jezebel and her relationships, by identifying her also as the formidable Queen Tiy, married to pharaoh Amenhotep III ‘the Magnificent’, and later, to Akhnaton. And now, in keeping with Nefertiti’s also being a biblical character, I shall go even further and identify Amenhotep III & IV (Akhnaton) as, respectively, king Asa of Judah and king Ahab of Israel. This will serve to streamline my previous cumbersome view that Nefertiti-Jezebel must first have married Ahab (a marriage recorded in the Bible), and had then gone to Egypt to marry Amenhotep III, for the last years of his life (as Nefertiti is known to have done), and then Akhnaton (as Nefertiti also did). The streamlined marriage sequence is now to be recognized as Nefertiti-Jezebel married to Amenhotep III-Asa and then to Akhnaton-Ahab. (Though further on I shall accept that there was another marriage before even these).

The evil and idolatrous Jezebel’s marrying Amenhotep III-Asa, as I am proposing here, would wonderfully account for certain strange aspects of that great pharaoh’s very last years. These are well described by Velikovsky, for instance, in Oedipus and Ikhnaton (1960). But they would also account for why the good and pious king, Asa of Judah, his biblical alter ego, had lurched somewhat tangentially off the rails in his very last years of kingship.

It would not be the least surprising if the mighty king Asa of Judah should have ruled also Egypt. His long reign of about 40 years (similar to Amenhotep III’s) was largely peaceful and unchallenged. God had blessed Asa with prosperity and power. “Asa had an army of 300,000 from Judah, armed with large shields and spears, and 280,000 from Benjamin who carried shields and drew bows; all these were mighty warriors” (2 Chronicles 14:8).

It is impossible to imagine reasonably that a king of this sort of might could have been contained to just the small kingdom of Judah. I think that it is very reasonable to say that he must also have had power over Egypt. Later I shall go even further, and suggest that he had also ruled Babylon.

A further supplement.

This combination of rulership over Egypt and Babylon, coupled with the contemporary presence of the semi-divine, goddess-acclaimed Nefertiti, both beautiful and cruel (certainly so as Jezebel), leads me to the conclusion that our already composite queen was also the legendary “Semiramis” of the Greco-Roman legends; a beautiful and cruel queen who had ruled both Babylon and Egypt in great magnificence and opulence.

“Semiramis” – and this may be of interest only to some Catholics – is described in great detail by the German mystic, Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (In The Life of Jesus Christ and Biblical Revelations, section 9. SEMIRAMIS), who claims to have seen this queen in visions. And, though the mystic’s chronology is awry (but so is that of the Egyptologists), there are some very compelling points that she raises that will serve, here and there, to illuminate our reconstruction. However this article can be read without one’s needing to take into account such mystical visions.

For the link between “Semiramis” and Nefertiti-Jezebel, see my article:

The 3-Dimensional Queen Nefertiti:

As Nefertiti; Jezebel and semiramis.

Blessed Anne Catherine’s comment on the Egyptology of her (C19th) day is too intriguing to pass over here:

The scholars of the present day who write about Egypt are in gross error. They accept so many things concerning the Egyptians as history, science, and learning, which nevertheless have no other foundation than astrology and false visions. That any nation could remain as stupid and beastly as the Egyptians is a proof of it. But these savants reject such demoniacal inspirations and practices as im­possible. They esteem the Egyptians more ancient than they really are, because in those early times they appear to have possessed such knowledge of abstruse and hidden things.

But I saw that, even at the coming of Semiramis to Memphis, these people, in their pride had designedly con­fused their calendar. Their ambition was to take prece­dence of all other nations in point of time. With this end in view, they drew up a number of complicated calendars and royal genealogical tables. By this and frequent changes in their computations, order and true chronology were lost. That this confusion might be firmly established, they perpetuated every error by inscriptions and the erec­tion of great buildings. For a long time they reckoned the ages of father and son, as if the date of the former’s demise were that of the latter’s birth. The kings, who waged constant war with the priests on the subject of chronology, inserted among their forefathers the names of persons that never existed. Thus the four kings of the same name who reigned simultaneously in Thebes, Heliopolis, Memphis, and Sais, were in accordance with this design, reckoned one after the other. I saw too that once they reckoned nine hundred and seventy days to a year, and again, years were computed as months. I saw a pagan priest drawing up a chronological table in which for every five hundred years, eleven hundred were set down.

I saw these false computations of the pagan priests at the same time that I beheld Jesus teaching on the Sabbath at Aruma. Jesus, speaking before the Pharisees of the Call of Abraham and his sojourn in Egypt, exposed the errors of the Egyptian calendar. He told them that the world had now existed 4028 years. When I heard Jesus say this, He was Himself thirty-one years old.

[End of quote]

King Asa was basically a good king (though with some ambivalence, I Kings 15:14), and so God blessed him with incredible prosperity and power. He was truly a ‘Magnificent’. Early in his reign, this Asa defeated a force of 1 million Ethiopians and Libyans (2 Chronicles 14:9-15; 16:8). So did Amenhotep III defeat a huge force of Libyans/Ethiopians, taking 30,000 captives. According to Joann Fletcher’s account of this (Egypt’s Sun King. Amenhotep III, Duncan Baird Publishers, 2000, p. 44):

In the fifth year of his rule Amenhotep crushed a rebellion …. Aged 16, Amenhotep triumphed in what proved to be the only major military encounter in his reign of almost 40 years. Egyptian troops led by Amenhotep and his viceroy Merymose defeated the rebel forces of Kush [Ethiopia], Irem, Tiurek, and Weretj (or Weresh), taking 30,000 prisoners. His victory was commemorated on three stelae at Aswan and on Sai island in Sudan … and fragmentary stela at Semna ….

Thanks to the testimony of these Egyptian records we can now, I think, date this victory of his, as Asa, to his 5th year.

For clarifications on how the supposedly peaceful reign of Asa was seemingly agitated for many years by king Baasha of Israel, read my reconstruction on Baasha as Ahab himself:

A Revised History of Northern Israel


Jeroboam I to Jehu

Queen Tiy

Amenhotep III is also thought to have been married to the formidable Queen Tiy (Tiye) from early in his reign.

However, it is my recent view that two ‘pharaohs Amenhotep’, III and IV (the latter being Akhnaton), may have been confused here by the Egyptologists, and that it was, instead, Akhnaton who had married Tiy early in his reign, and that Tiy was Nefertiti herself. The name Tiy is considered by Egyptologists to have been an abbreviation of a longer name, such as, for instance, Neferti-ti[ye]. Indeed, Queen Tiy fades from the historical scene at the very same time, and just as mysteriously, as does Nefertiti.

Since Tiy is known to have been the mother of Akhnaton, then my new scenario would perhaps, most controversially, strengthen Velikovsky’s conclusion (in Oedipus and Ikhnaton, 1960) that Akhnaton had married his own mother (the tragic Jocasta of the Greek legends). Akhnaton is depicted hand in hand with Tiy. Though Tiy may have been Akhnaton’s foster-mother.

Perhaps Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich supplies the requisite information here, the true marriage sequences, when she tells:

…. In obedience to certain divinations, she became the wife of one of the chief shepherds of the King of Babylon, and later on she married the King himself. …. Semiramis returning home from Africa after one of her hunting or military expeditions, went to Egypt. Semiramis was very highly honored in Egypt where, by her intrigues and diabolical arts, she greatly contributed to the spread of idolatry. I saw her in Memphis, where human sacrifices were common, plotting and practicing magic and astrology. ….

As (or if) Asa, then Amenhotep III would have been a descendant of king Solomon, whom he resembled in his power and his wealth. If Solomon were also Hammurabi of Babylon, as I have argued in various articles now, then so ought Amenhotep III have been one of Hammurabi’s successor-rulers of the Babylon of the pre-Kassite era. Before Tiy/Nefertiti married Amenhotep, she may must therefore have been married to Ahab’s father, Omri, a one-time servant of the king of Judah (I Kings 16:17?) (Anne Catherine’s “one of the chief shepherds of the King of Babylon”), who became king of Israel. Omri (the name is often considered to be foreign) may have been Amenhotep III’s famous commander and viceroy, Merymose. This would mean that we still have to accept three successive marriages for the queen (to Omri; to Asa-Amenhotep III and to Ahab-Akhnaton). [According to the German mystic, “Semiramis” lived to be 107. This would need to be tested in this new context]. But at least I no longer have the complication of separate marriages to Ahab and also Akhnaton, whom I have now fused into one.

Amenhotep III’s brief marriage to Nefertiti/Tiy in his last few years could well explain why this otherwise good king, Asa, had gone off the rails right at the end. He suffered a disease in his feet [was he, rather than Akhnaton, or in part, the Oedipus of the Greeks?], and he turned to physicians (presumably magicians or wizards-witch doctors), and not to God (2 Chronicles 16:12) as he had done in the case of the Ethiopian and Libyan war, and, when chided by a prophet, he persecuted him, and he “inflicted cruelties on some of the people at the same time” (16:10). Cruelty was of course the trademark of “Semiramis”.

And his marrying Nefertiti/Tiy would also explain why Atonism had begun to raise its ugly head even during his reign. Amenhotep III’s dominance also of Egypt and Babylon would be amongst those “the rest of the acts of Asa, all his power, all that he did, and the cities that he built …” elsewhere recorded (I Kings 15:23), that the biblical scribe does not bother to detail.

Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich’s testimony bears out the opinion of some Egyptologists that the queen (as Nefertiti) was regarded as a virtual goddess, even during her lifetime:

Semiramis was honored almost as a divinity.

Queen Tiy, also, was invested with extraordinary powers for a woman of her time. She certainly was depicted in some formidable ways, like Nefertiti, smiting female captives, and with Tiy being the first person to have been depicted as a sphinx in female form – and vicious at that. Egyptologists imagine that these smiting scenes were merely figurative. But a reading of Anne Catherine Emmerich might prompt quite a different view, depicting a very cruel and ruthless queen (I have taken her “Melchisedech” here to have been the prophet Elijah):

…. Semiramis was born … at Ascalon … and then taken by pagan priests to some shepherds in a wilderness. She spent much of her time during her childhood alone on a mountain. I saw … the devil under various forms playing with her …  I saw near her birds of brilliant plumage. They brought her all kinds of curious toys. [Ravens would bring food to Jezebel’s contemporary and foe, Elijah (1 Kings 17:4, 6)]. I do not remember all that went on connected with her, but it was the most horrible idolatry. She was beautiful, full of intelligence and seductive arts, and everything succeeded with her. ….

…. Thus I saw Melchisedech at the court of Semiramis in Babylon, where she reigned with indescribable grandeur and magnificence. …. Semiramis received Melchisedech with great reverence. She secretly dreaded him on account of his wisdom. …. She fancied that he might perhaps woo her for his bride. But he spoke to her sternly, reproached her with her cruelty ….

…. This building [a pyramid of hers] was the real center of Egyptian idolatry, astrology, witchcraft, and abominable impurity. Here children and the aged were offered in sacrifice. …. Astrologers and necromancers … there had their diabolical visions. Near the baths was im­mense machinery for purifying the muddy waters of the Nile. The baths witnessed the most infamous horrors of idol worship. I saw later on Egyptian women practicing the greatest abominations in them. This pyramid [perhaps at ‘Fort Babylon’ in today’s Coptic Cairo – the ancient historian Ctesias does date this “Babylon” to the time of Semiramis] did not long exist; it was destroyed. ….

Once after “Melchisedech” had sternly reprimanded her, “Semiramis” suffered a temporary insanity:

Semiramis grew speechless from terror …. She became like a beast. She was for a long time penned up, and they cast to her in derision grass and straw in a manger; only one servant was faithful to her and furnished her with food. She was freed from the chastisement, but she carried on her disorders anew. ….

The queen does in fact, as Jezebel, disappear completely from the biblical scene for the 12 years from the death of Ahab (which I had previously imagined to have been the period of her marriage to Akhnaton, but no longer) to her re-emergence in Israel at the death of Ahab’s son, Jehoram, when she herself will be slain. Her crushing death at the hands of General Jehu at Jezreel was depicted by the latter’s alter ego in Egyptian history, Horemheb, who turned upside down the talatat blocks in one of Nefertiti’s shrines, and slashed the Aton’s rays across the fingertips, eliciting this comment from R. Winfield Smith: It is certain that the queen was held in contempt by those responsible for this undignified treatment. To turn a beautiful female upside-down, to slash her viciously, and to place her where she would be symbolically crushed by the enormous weight of massive, soaring walls, can hardly be explained otherwise” (as quoted by J. Tyldesley, Nefertiti, Penguin, 1998, p, 60).

Jehu-Horemheb has thereby left a testimony for posterity, in Egypt, of the death of Nefertiti-Jezebel – and now Tiy? – that he himself had witnessed before the “massive, soaring walls” of the palace at Jezreel in Israel. The queen was thrown down from the window. As Nefertiti, she had often displayed herself at the “Window of Appearance” in Akhet-aton, to be admired by the throngs below. But as far as Jehu-Horemheb was concerned, she was a vile creature of “whoredoms and sorceries” (2 Kings 9:22). Egyptologists like Joann Fletcher can cease searching for the mummy of Nefertiti, because there would be no mummification for the evil queen as the biblical Jezebel. There could not be, as there was nothing left of her. Sic transit gloria mundi.

This new scenario will of course require a complete re-think of the children (mainly girls) of Tiy/ Nefertiti, and who were the fathers of these.

The Mention Of The Israelites In Egyptian Scriptures

There are several Egyptian documents that not only mention the Israelites in their texts, but also tie the Bible to historical facts.   Egyptian documents such as the Tell el-Amarna letters, a large “stele” of the Menephtah, and the Elephantine papyri not only tell the history of Egypt, they also coincide with biblical scripture.   The documents confirm not only dates, certain numbers, and rituals, such as circumcision, but places and event, e.g. The Exodus, of biblical stories.
According to James Orr, general editor for “The Definition for Egypt,” the Tell el-Amarna Letters were discovered in 1887.   “These documents refer to many Biblical cities; they also give much direct information concerning the political and social conditions at that period” (Orr, Palestine).   Damien Mackey’s “The House of David,” shows the remarkable similarities between several rulers in Egypt and the three kings (Saul, David, and Salomon) mentioned in the Bible.   In Michael Grant’s “The History of Ancient Israel,” he states that a ruler in the 14th century named Labayu ruled over Shechem and extended his kingdom as far as the Mediterranean coast (18).   One model given in the case of Saul tells of a second name stated in Psalm 57; the name is Lebaim, “a unique word in the Old Testament meaning great lions.”   In line with this passage comes a reference from the Amarna letters; an Egyptian pharaoh whose name was Labayu, meaning “Great Lion of (N)’ where N is a god’s name” (Mackey 1).
The Amarna letters could also wrap together David and Tuthmosis III as one and the same.   Labayu had sons that battled for an equally important roll after his death (Grant 18).   In II Samuel 3:1, the passage tells of how Saul’s two sons Ish-Bosheth and David fought for power.   This leads Mackey to a comprehensive comparison between David and Tuthmosis I & III.   A few illustrations in the contrast are ranging from military campaigns to coronation ceremonies (Mackey 3-5).   In the military campaign of Megiddo,…