Babylonian Gods and Goddesses

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  • Apsu
  • Tiamat’s husband, the ruler of gods and underworld oceans. Father of Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar and Kishar. Ea killed him.

  • Tiamat
  • Great goddess, counterpart of Sumerian Nintu. Primeval chaos. Destroyed by her children to create the world.

  • Mummu (Mommu)
  • Son of Tiamat and Anu or their chamberlain/intermediary. God of mist. Craftsman god.In one of the Babylonian creation stories, the original beings were Apsu, Mommu, and Tiamat. From them came the demons and the gods. The gods were Lakhmu, Lakhame, Ashar, Kishar, Anu, Ea, and others. Tiamat became a power of evil and Ea and followers, a power of good. This is the version on Ashurbaipal’s library’s Creation from about 650 B.C. There are other versions from Berosus (280 B.C.) and Damiscius (6th century A.D.)

  • Anshar
  • Son of Tiamat and Apsu, brother and husband of Kishar.

  • Kishar
  • Daughter of Tiamat and Apsu, sister and wife of Anshar.

  • Anu (An)
  • The son of Anshar and Kishar. He is the chief god of the Great Triad, with Ea and Enlil. In Sumerian mythology, he was the god of sky, husband of Nintu (Ki), and the father and ruler of all gods. One of four Sumerian creating gods.

  • Ea
  • Son of Anu and husband of Damkina, father of Marduk, god of wisdom, arts and crafts, he is the ruler of all gods after Apsu. In the Great Triad, Ea is the third with Anu and Enlil. In Sumerian he is the son of Nintu.

  • Damkina
  • Earth mother goddess, wife of Ea and mother of Marduk.

  • Marduk
  • Son of Ea and Damkina, the wisest of the gods and eventually their ruler. Counterpart of the Sumerian Anu and Enlil.

  • Enlil
  • God of the air between earth and sky. In Sumerian mythology he was the son of An and Nintu, the god of air and agriculture, and eventually co-ruler of the gods along with Anu. One of four Sumerian creating gods.

  • Ishtar (Inanna)
  • A great goddess, the goddess of love and war. She descended to the Underworld to try to regain her lover.

  • Kingu (Qingu)
  • Dragon commander of Tiamat’s forces against Marduk. Kingu is the counterpart of the sky god Anu on the side of darkness. He may have been Tiamat’s second husband. Ea fashioned humans from his blood when Kingu was ordered to be sacrificed.

  • Nintu (Ki)
  • A great Sumerian goddess, wife of Anu and mother of all gods, she created humans from clay. One of four Sumerian creating gods.

  • Sin
  • Moon god and the father of Shamash; counterpart of the Sumerian Nanna.

  • Shamash
  • Son of Sin, god of the sun who protects the poor and travellers.

[Additional Source: Who’s Who in Non-Classical Mythology, by Egerton Sykes. Oxford University Press. 1993.]

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