Ancient Sumerian Deities

Deity: Displays the name of the deity along with a notation of any other pantheons they belong to.

Patron City: Center of worship of the deity.
Description: A brief description of the deity’s duties.
Symbol: Symbol commonly used to denote the deity.
Relationships: Relationships with other deities.
Comments: Interesting side notes concerning the deity.
Also Known As…: Other names the deity is known by along with a notation of the pantheon(s) they belong to.

Continue reading Ancient Sumerian Deities

Athena Review : Sites and Museums in Roman Gaul: Arles

Arles (Arelate) was the first Roman town to be built in Gaul after the 49 BC defeat of Pompey’s forces at Marseille (Massilia) by Caesar during the Civil War. Caesar had also constructed his fleet there. A colony for veterans of the Sixth Legion was founded in 46 BC as Colonia Julia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum by Tiberius Claudius Nero, father of the future Emperor Tiberius. Continue reading Athena Review : Sites and Museums in Roman Gaul: Arles

The Book of Ecclesiastes

The author of the Old Testament’s Book of Ecclesiastes called himself “the preacher.” And he claimed to be a “son of David,” an expression used commonly to describe oneself as a Jew rather than as an actual son of David. But some in modern times would believe that Ecclesiastes was written by Solomon, despite it being unlikely that Solomon in his old age would have turned his view of the world upside down and written about futility and the evils of oppression. Some others estimate that Ecclesiastes was written several hundred years after Solomon: around 200 BCE. Continue reading The Book of Ecclesiastes

Spiritualists versus the Materialists in Ancient India

In India, philosophy had its origins in a search of relations between self and the universe, done by people who were religious in outlook. These were people less interested in the monotonous routines of the ritual sacrifices and more interested in probing relations between self and the universe. Continue reading Spiritualists versus the Materialists in Ancient India

Queen Hatshepsut’s Temple Deir El Bahri

The    Hathor-head capital of a columnBy the banks of the Nile, across the river from Thebes, a three-tiered temple was found beneath hundreds of tons of sand tens of centuries after its construction. The temple is a reflection of the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II, and was constructed alongside that eleventh-dynasty structure. However, the temple of Hatshepsut is far larger than that of Mentuhotep. The architect was Senmut, Hatshepsut’s lover and a member of her court with more than 20 titles. Senmut designed the temple Continue reading Queen Hatshepsut’s Temple Deir El Bahri

Hatshepsut Poetry : Speak to Me

Poetry
These poems are taken from Hatshepsut, Speak to Me by Ruth Whitman [Wayne SU Press, Detroit: 1992]

Hatshepsut, seated, as female

HATSHEPSUT:

When I was six

my father Thutmose the First

lifted me up to sit beside him

on his throne of Amen. Continue reading Hatshepsut Poetry : Speak to Me